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From: TSS ()
Subject: NOR-98 SCRAPIE UPDATE AUGUST 31, 2007 (RISES TO 5 DOCUMENTED CASES IN USA)
Date: October 9, 2007 at 7:15 am PST

Greetings, seems the NOR-98 atypical scrapie cases are the rise in the USA. ...tss


INFECTED AND SOURCE FLOCKS

AS of August 31, 2007, there were 33 scrapie infected and source flocks with open statuses (Figure 3). Five new source flocks and one new infected flock were reported n August (Figure 4) with a total of 64 reported for FY 2007 (Figure 5).


snip...


IN FY 2007 TWO FIELD CASES, ONE VALIDATION CASE, AND TWO RSSS CASES WERE CONSISTENT WITH NOR-98 SCRAPIE. ...

(BRINGS A TOTAL OF 5 NOR-98 CASES DOCUMENTED IN 2007 IN USA. ...TSS)


http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_diseases/scrapie/downloads/monthly_scrapie_rpt.pps


please note sporadic cjd cases on the rise with 'unknown type' increasing drastically. ...tss

NOW, why in the world is no one much speaking about the lates 3 cases of the NOR-98 case in the USA,
and what are the potential ramifications thereof;



Subject: Aspects of the Cerebellar Neuropathology in Nor98 Date: September 26, 2007 at 4:06 pm PST

P03.141

Aspects of the Cerebellar Neuropathology in Nor98

Gavier-Widén, D1; Benestad, SL2; Ottander, L1; Westergren, E1 1National Veterinary Insitute, Sweden; 2National Veterinary Institute, Norway

Nor98 is a prion disease of old sheep and goats. This atypical form of scrapie was first described in Norway in 1998. Several features of Nor98 were shown to be different from classical scrapie including the distribution of disease associated prion protein (PrPd) accumulation in the brain. The cerebellum is generally the most affected brain area in Nor98. The study here presented aimed at adding information on the neuropathology in the cerebellum of Nor98 naturally affected sheep of various genotypes in Sweden and Norway. A panel of histochemical and immunohistochemical (IHC) stainings such as IHC for PrPd, synaptophysin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, amyloid, and cell markers for phagocytic cells were conducted. The type of histological lesions and tissue reactions were evaluated. The types of PrPd deposition were characterized. The cerebellar cortex was regularly affected, even though there was a variation in the severity of the lesions from case to case. Neuropil vacuolation was more marked in the molecular layer, but affected also the granular cell layer. There was a loss of granule cells. Punctate deposition of PrPd was characteristic. It was morphologically and in distribution identical with that of synaptophysin, suggesting that PrPd accumulates in the synaptic structures. PrPd was also observed in the granule cell layer and in the white matter. *** The pathology features of Nor98 in the cerebellum of the affected sheep showed similarities with those of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans.

http://www.prion2007.com/pdf/Prion%20Book%20of%20Abstracts.pdf

what does the Nobel Prize Winner Stanely Prusiner say about atypical scrapie, lets look at that first ;



Published online before print October 20, 2005

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 10.1073/pnas.0502296102
Medical Sciences

A newly identified type of scrapie agent can naturally infect sheep with resistant PrP genotypes

( sheep prion | transgenic mice )

Annick Le Dur *, Vincent Béringue *, Olivier Andréoletti , Fabienne Reine *, Thanh Lan Laï *, Thierry Baron , Bjørn Bratberg ¶, Jean-Luc Vilotte ||, Pierre Sarradin **, Sylvie L. Benestad ¶, and Hubert Laude *
*Virologie Immunologie Moléculaires and ||Génétique Biochimique et Cytogénétique, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France; Unité Mixte de Recherche, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique-Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse, Interactions Hôte Agent Pathogène, 31066 Toulouse, France; Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments, Unité Agents Transmissibles Non Conventionnels, 69364 Lyon, France; **Pathologie Infectieuse et Immunologie, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 37380 Nouzilly, France; and ¶Department of Pathology, National Veterinary Institute, 0033 Oslo, Norway


Edited by Stanley B. Prusiner, University of California, San Francisco, CA, and approved September 12, 2005 (received for review March 21, 2005)

Scrapie in small ruminants belongs to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, a family of fatal neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals and can transmit within and between species by ingestion or inoculation. Conversion of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP), normal cellular PrP (PrPc), into a misfolded form, abnormal PrP (PrPSc), plays a key role in TSE transmission and pathogenesis. The intensified surveillance of scrapie in the European Union, together with the improvement of PrPSc detection techniques, has led to the discovery of a growing number of so-called atypical scrapie cases. These include clinical Nor98 cases first identified in Norwegian sheep on the basis of unusual pathological and PrPSc molecular features and "cases" that produced discordant responses in the rapid tests currently applied to the large-scale random screening of slaughtered or fallen animals. Worryingly, a substantial proportion of such cases involved sheep with PrP genotypes known until now to confer natural resistance to conventional scrapie. Here we report that both Nor98 and discordant cases, including three sheep homozygous for the resistant PrPARR allele (A136R154R171), efficiently transmitted the disease to transgenic mice expressing ovine PrP, and that they shared unique biological and biochemical features upon propagation in mice. These observations support the view that a truly infectious TSE agent, unrecognized until recently, infects sheep and goat flocks and may have important implications in terms of scrapie control and public health.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Author contributions: H.L. designed research; A.L.D., V.B., O.A., F.R., T.L.L., J.-L.V., and H.L. performed research; T.B., B.B., P.S., and S.L.B. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; V.B., O.A., and H.L. analyzed data; and H.L. wrote the paper.

A.L.D. and V.B. contributed equally to this work.

To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Hubert Laude, E-mail: laude@jouy.inra.fr

www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0502296102


http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/0502296102v1



OF COURSE, the USDA et al once was concerned for human health from typical scrapie, and rightly so, typical scrapie transmits to primates by there NON-FORCED ORAL CONSUMPTION ;


76/10.12/4.6

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1976/10/12004001.pdf

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=6997404&dopt=Abstract



ALSO,

The agent responsible for French iatrogenic
growth hormone-linked CJD taken as a control is very different from vCJD but
is similar to that found in one case of sporadic CJD and one sheep scrapie
isolate.

http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/041490898v1



SO, in my opinion, the _myth_ that typical scrapie does not transmit to humans, is just that,
a myth. there have never been transmission studies done on man, and I would bet my last
bottom dollar, anyone making the statement, would not eat a handful of scrapie infected
brains. you do know about james alford don't you, whether or not it was the sheep brains he
was fed in the middle east, or something else, this war hero has cjd, and he is very young.
this was a tragic story too. dont hear much of that now either. ...



http://www.blackfive.net/main/2004/10/a_dying_hero_ss.html

http://www.blackfive.net/main/2004/03/ssg_james_alfor.html

PLEASE NOTE IN USA CJD UPDATE AS AT JUNE 2007, please note steady increase
in ''TYPE UNKNOWN''. ...TSS


1 Acquired in the United Kingdom; 2 Acquired in Saudi Arabia; 3 Includes 17
inconclusive and 9 pending (1 from 2006, 8
from 2007); 4 Includes 17 non-vCJD type unknown (2 from 1996, 2 from 1997, 1
from 2001, 1 from 2003, 4 from 2004, 3
from 2005, 4 from 2006) and 36 type pending (2 from 2005, 8 from 2006, 26
from 2007)

http://www.cjdsurveillance.com/pdf/case-table.pdf


TSS

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
Sent: Tuesday, August 21, 2007 9:50 AM
Subject: TWO MORE Nor98 atypical Scrapie cases detected in USA bringing
total to 3 cases to date


Infected and Source Flocks

As of June 30, 2007, there were .....

snip...

One field case and one validation case were consistent with Nor-98 scrapie.

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_diseases/scrapie/downloads/monthly_scrapie_rpt.pps


IN the February 2007 Scrapie report it only mentions ;

''One case was consistent with Nor98 scrapie.''

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_diseases/scrapie/


(please note flocks of origin were in WY, CO, AND CA. PERSONAL COMMUNCATIONS
USDA, APHIS, VS ET AL. ...TSS)


NOR98 SHOWS MOLECULAR FEATURES REMINISCENT OF GSS


http://lists.ifas.ufl.edu/cgi-bin/wa.exe?A2=ind0708&L=sanet-mg&T=0&P=14553


An evaluation of scrapie surveillance in the United States


http://lists.ifas.ufl.edu/cgi-bin/wa.exe?A2=ind0708&L=sanet-mg&T=0&P=3427


FOIA REQUEST FOR ATYPICAL TSE INFORMATION ON VERMONT SHEEP


http://lists.ifas.ufl.edu/cgi-bin/wa.exe?A2=ind0708&L=sanet-mg&T=0&P=10451

NEW SCIENTIST MAGAZINE 4/02/01

NEW SCIENTIST EDITORIAL PAGE 3

MAD SHEEP DISEASE?

IF THERE is one categorical pronouncement you
can safely make about prion diseases like BSE
or CJD, it is that one should not make
categorical pronouncements. "British beef is
safe" and "there is no BSE in Germany" come
to mind. Now there are two more: "scrapie is
safe", and "people don't catch sporadic CJD".
Scrapie is the most widespread prion
disease, infecting untold numbers of
sheep worldwide. Sporadic CJD is the
old-fashioned pre-BSE kind that is supposed
to happen spontaneously in unlucky people.
But a surprise observation in France suggests
some sCJD cases--though by no means all--may
be linked to scrapie after all (see p 4).

For years, British authorities asserted that
BSE was harmless because it was a form of
scrapie. In fact, the only evidence scrapie
is safe is some broad-brush epidemiology, good
as far as it goes but unable to reveal
occasional risks for some people from some
sheep. Alarm bells should have rung in 1980
when researchers gave monkeys scrapie by
feeding them infected brains. But that
research, like so much other work on
prion diseases, was never followed up.
We still have little idea what BSE does
in pigs and chickens. The Queniborough
vCJD outbreak (see p 5) would be easier
to understand if we knew how much brain
we must eat to be infected. As for scrapie,
it shouldn't take a chance finding to
tell us that there may be dangerous sheep
out there.

Suspect symptoms

What if you can catch old-fashioned CJD by
eating meat from a sheep infected with
scrapie?

Exclusive from New Scientist magazine

Four years ago, Terry Singeltary watched his
mother die horribly from a degenerative brain disease.................

full text url follows
By Debora MacKenzie

Suspect Symptoms

http://www.newscientist.com/channel/health/bse/mg16922840.300

if url dead, go here for 'SUSPECT SYMPTOMS'

you can access article here also;

http://www.mad-cow.org/UKCJD/CJD_news52.html#29%20Mar%2001%20-%20CJD%20-%20Suspect%20symptoms

http://www.organicconsumers.org/meat/scrapiecjd.cfm


Then follow up with PNAS studies from which
new scientist article written from;

Published online before print March 20, 2001
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 10.1073/pnas.041490898
Abstract of this Article
Reprint (PDF) Version of this Article
Similar articles found in:
PNAS Online
PubMed
PubMed Citation
Search Medline for articles by:
Lasmézas, C. I. || Deslys, J.-P.
Alert me when:
new articles cite this article
Download to Citation Manager
Neurobiology
Adaptation of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent to primates and
comparison with Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease: Implications for human health
Corinne Ida Lasmézas*, [dagger] , Jean-Guy Fournier*, Virginie Nouvel*,
Hermann Boe*, Domíníque Marcé*, François Lamoury*, Nicolas Kopp [Dagger
] , Jean-Jacques Hauw§, James Ironside¶, Moira Bruce [||] , Dominique
Dormont*, and Jean-Philippe Deslys*

* Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, Service de Neurovirologie,
Direction des Sciences du Vivant/Département de Recherche Medicale,
Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées 60-68, Avenue du
Général Leclerc, BP 6, 92 265 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex, France; [Dagger
] Hôpital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer, 59, Boulevard Pinel, 69003
Lyon, France; § Laboratoire de Neuropathologie, Hôpital de la
Salpêtrière, 83, Boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75013 Paris, France; ¶
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit, Western General Hospital,
Crewe Road, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, United Kingdom; and [||] Institute for
Animal Health, Neuropathogenesis Unit, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9
3JF, United Kingdom

Edited by D. Carleton Gajdusek, Centre National de la Recherche
Scientifique, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, and approved December 7, 2000
(received for review October 16, 2000)

Abstract

There is substantial scientific evidence to support the notion that
bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has contaminated human beings,
causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). This disease has
raised concerns about the possibility of an iatrogenic secondary
transmission to humans, because the biological properties of the
primate-adapted BSE agent are unknown. We show that (i) BSE can be
transmitted from primate to primate by intravenous route in 25 months,
and (ii) an iatrogenic transmission of vCJD to humans could be readily
recognized pathologically, whether it occurs by the central or
peripheral route. Strain typing in mice demonstrates that the BSE agent
adapts to macaques in the same way as it does to humans and confirms
that the BSE agent is responsible for vCJD not only in the United
Kingdom but also in France. The agent responsible for French iatrogenic
growth hormone-linked CJD taken as a control is very different from vCJD
but is similar to that found in one case of sporadic CJD and one sheep
scrapie isolate. These data will be key in identifying the origin of
human cases of prion disease, including accidental vCJD transmission,
and could provide bases for vCJD risk assessment.

Introduction

The recognition of a variant of the human transmissible spongiform
encephalopathy (TSE) Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD) in the U.K. in
1996 raised the major concern that it would correspond to human
infection with the agent responsible for bovine spongiform
encephalopathy (BSE; ref. 1). Transmission of BSE to macaques provided
the first experimental evidence as it produced a disease close to vCJD
in humans (2). Strain typing in inbred mice (consisting of measuring the
incubation period and establishing lesion profiles corresponding to the
strain-specific distribution of brain vacuolation) allows reliable
identification of TSE strains (3). This method, together with
biochemical methods, has revealed a single phenotype for the agents of
BSE and the British cases of vCJD (4-6). Mice expressing only the bovine
prion protein (PrP) were highly susceptible to vCJD and BSE, which
induced the same disease (7). Thus, it is now well established that BSE
has caused vCJD, probably by alimentary contamination. In this respect,
the finding of abnormal PrP labeling in the gastrointestinal tract and
lymphatic tissues of orally BSE-contaminated lemurs shows that the BSE
agent can infect primates by the oral route (8). About 1 million
contaminated cattle may have entered the human food chain, and the
future number of vCJD cases could range from 63 to 136,000 depending on
the incubation period of BSE in humans (9). Unlike sporadic CJD (sCJD)
and iatrogenic CJD (iCJD) linked to the administration of contaminated
growth hormone extracted from human hypophyses, in vCJD, the infectious
agent seems to be widely distributed in lymphoid organs, as pathological
PrP (PrPres) can be detected in tonsils, lymph nodes, spleen, and
appendix even in the preclinical phase of the disease (10, 11). This
raises a public health issue with regard to the risk of iatrogenic
transmission of vCJD through surgical instruments, grafts, blood
transfusion, or parenteral administration of biological products of
human origin. However, this risk is difficult to assess, because it
largely depends on factors such as the virulence of the BSE agent
adapted to primates and the efficiency of secondary transmission to
humans by a peripheral route such as the i.v. one. A further issue is
whether vCJD accidentally acquired from humans would be recognized. The
latter poses the question of a phenotypic variation of the BSE agent
after successive transmissions in humans: does it retain its strain
characteristics, and does it induce a pathology similar to that observed
in the previous host? A 9-year history of transmission of BSE to
primates and mice enables us today to clarify a number of these
important points.

Although BSE has mainly affected the U.K., two definite cases and one
probable case of vCJD have now been reported in France in people who
have never resided in the U.K. (12, 13). We strain-typed the first of
these cases to establish its origin. Strain typing in C57BL/6 mice of
BSE, French, and British vCJD was compared with that of BSE passaged in
nonhuman primates, thus allowing us to study the effect of serial
passages in primates. Comparisons were also made with French cases of
sCJD and iCJD and two strains of scrapie (one of French and one of U.S.
origin). Our findings provide experimental demonstration that the same
agent, namely that responsible for the cattle disease BSE, has caused
vCJD both in France and in the U.K., in line with biochemical data and
with the fact that, until 1996, about 10% of the beef consumed in France
was imported from the U.K. We found that the BSE agent in nonhuman
primates is similar to that causing vCJD in humans and tends to evolve
rapidly toward a primate-adapted variant. Furthermore, we showed that
the strain responsible for iCJD is closely related to that of one
patient with sCJD, and, more unexpectedly, that these agents were
similar to the French scrapie strain studied (but different from the
U.S. scrapie strain). This finding requires a cautious interpretation
for several reasons, not least because of the inevitably limited number
of TSE strains that can be studied by such a cumbersome method as strain
typing. Nonetheless, it also prompts reconsideration of the possibility
that, in some instances, sheep and human TSEs can share a common origin.

snip...

http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/041490898v1


12/10/76
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
REPORT OF THE ADVISORY COMMITTE ON SCRAPIE
Office Note
CHAIRMAN: PROFESSOR PETER WILDY

snip...

A The Present Position with respect to Scrapie
A] The Problem

Scrapie is a natural disease of sheep and goats. It is a slow
and inexorably progressive degenerative disorder of the nervous system
and it ia fatal. It is enzootic in the United Kingdom but not in all
countries.

The field problem has been reviewed by a MAFF working group
(ARC 35/77). It is difficult to assess the incidence in Britain for
a variety of reasons but the disease causes serious financial loss;
it is estimated that it cost Swaledale breeders alone $l.7 M during
the five years 1971-1975. A further inestimable loss arises from the
closure of certain export markets, in particular those of the United
States, to British sheep.

It is clear that scrapie in sheep is important commercially and
for that reason alone effective measures to control it should be
devised as quickly as possible.

Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether
scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the
disease has been transmitted to primates. One particularly lurid
speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie,
kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of
mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of
Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit
scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed
for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)"
The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie
produce lesions identical to the one which characterise the human
dementias"

Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be
transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety
of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action
such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the
acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer
grievously.

snip...

76/10.12/4.6

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1976/10/12004001.pdf


TSS




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