From: TSS ()
Subject: Clinical Observations of BSE Infection in Red Deer
Date: October 4, 2007 at 9:05 am PST
Clinical Observations of BSE Infection in Red Deer
Steele, P1; Martin, S2; Jeffrey, M2; González, L2; Sisó, S2; Finlayson, J1; Hamilton, S1;
Eaton, Samatha L1; Reid, Hugh W1; Todd, R1; Pang, Y1; Chianini, F1; Dagleish, MP1
1Moredun Research Institute, UK; 2Veterinary Laboratory Agency, Lasswade, UK
Observation of clinical signs is often the first step in the diagnosis of TSE diseases in
experimental, farmed and wild animals. Clinical presentation of chronic wasting
disease (CWD) infected deer varies widely as disease progresses and many clinical
signs observed can be non-specific to TSE infection, however by terminal stage the
majority of cases involve behavioural changes and loss of body condition.
We present here the first description of clinical disease in deer experimentally infected
with BSE. These data are part of the results of an ongoing project to investigate the
susceptibility of UK red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) to BSE infection either by
alimentary or intra-cerebral infection.
Eighteen European red deer calves (mean 64 days old) were challenged intragastrically
with 25g of BSE-infected bovine brain. Six challenged and 2 control deer
were culled at 6 and 12 month post infection. These animals showed no clinical signs
and no disease-specific PrP (PrPd) on immunohistochemistry (IHC) examination of a
wide range of tissues collected at post-mortem. Six BSE-dosed and 4 negative control
deer are still alive at time of writing (1384 dpi).
Subsequently, 6 red deer of the same cohort (mean 341 days old) were challenged with
0.05g of BSE positive bovine brain material and 2 with sterile saline by the intracerebral
route. Currently (1106 dpi), five of the six challenged animals have developed
clinical signs and terminal disease confirmed by IHC and western blot detection of
Clinical signs similar to CWD cases have been observed including behavioral change,
wide stance, lowered head, and excessive salivation. All animals had significant weight
loss attributed to inability or unwillingness to feed, with inhalation pneumonia occurring
in the case of one animal which is commonly observed in CWD cases. The first animal
to show clinical signs was markedly different to the four subsequent cases.
This animal had to be culled following several behavioral episodes causing physical
injury. Our results prove for the first time that UK red deer are susceptible to intra-cerebral
BSE infection and shows that the clinical presentation of disease shares many
similarities to that recorded for CWD.
M03024: Susceptibility of red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) to BSE
Thursday 09 October 2003
This research project aims to determine whether BSE can be transmitted to UK red deer by including infected material in their feed.
Study Duration: April 2003 to April 2010
Contractor: Veterinary Laboratories Agency
The major cause of the spread of the BSE epidemic was attributed to the feeding of contaminated meat and bonemeal (MBM) in the protein rations fed to cattle. The use of MBM in animal feed was not restricted to cattle rations and it is known that MBM was included in the concentrates fed to farmed deer. BSE has been shown to be naturally or experimentally transmissible to a wide range of different ungulate species and deer are known to be susceptible to an endemic TSE (chronic wasting disease, CWD) which is prevalent in North America. However, to date, no TSE infections of UK deer have been reported.
Should BSE infection have been transmitted into the UK red deer population, the CWD precedent would suggest that there is potential for both spread and maintenance of the disease in both free living and captive UK deer populations. The purpose of this study is to investigate the susceptibility of UK red deer to BSE infection and to determine the clinical and pathological phenotype.
The initial objective of the study is to determine whether orally infected UK red deer are susceptible to bovine BSE agent. Groups of orally dosed deer will be sacrificed at 6, 12 and 60 months post inoculation and necropsies carried out. A range of tissue samples will be retained for further analysis such as immunohistochemistry. All animals will also be monitored clinically throughout the experiment to define any clinical phenotype.
-------- Original Message --------
Subject: Susceptibility of red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) to BSE
Date: Mon, 8 Mar 2004 20:29:54 -0600
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
TSE Project Details
Project Ref M03024
Theme Risk assessment of SEs
Sub Theme An evaluation of SEs transmission modalities from cattle to
man and other food animals, environment vectors
Title Susceptibility of red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) to BSE
Principle Investigator Dr Hawkins PI Department Veterinary Laboratories
PI Location Weybridge PI Organisation Veterinary Laboratories Agency
Last Year Cost £ This Year Cost £
Start Date 01/04/2003 End Date 01/04/2010
Status Current Total Cost £ 1,485,458
Abstract The major cause of the spread of BSE was attributed to the
feeding of contaminated meat and bone meal (MBM) in the protein rations
fed to cattle. The use of MBM in animal feed was not restricted to
cattle rations and it is known that MBM was included in the concentrates
fed to farmed deer. BSE has been shown to be naturally or experimentally
transmissible to a wide range of different ungulate species and deer are
known to be susceptible to an endemic TSE (chronic wasting disease, CWD)
which is prevalent in North America. However, to date, no TSE infections
of UK deer have been reported. The initial objective of the study is to
determine whether orally infected UK red deer are susceptible to bovine
BSE agent. Groups of orally dosed deer will be sacrificed at 6, 12 and
60 months post inoculation and necropsies carried out. A range of tissue
samples will be retained for further analysis such as
immunohistochemistry. All animals will also be monitored clinically
throughout the experiment to define any clinical phenotype.
©2004 Medical Research Council
Susceptibility of Red Deer to BSE
FSA funded project in collaboration with VLA
No known cases of BSE have ever been reported in any species of deer. However, an EU directive has decreed that provision must be made for all ruminant species entering the human food chain to be screened for BSE and free living and captive deer may have been exposed to the BSE agent. BSE has affected a range of different hoof stock (domestic and exotic cattle, eland, nyala, greater kudu, gemsbok and Arabian and scimitar-horned oryx) and several species of cats (cheetah, puma, tiger, lion and domestic cats) by presumed ingestion of contaminated meat and bone meal in food. As both captive and free ranging UK deer enter the human food chain it is important to determine their susceptibility to transmission of the BSE agent, the nature of any possible resultant clinical disease and to develop methods of screening deer tissues for the BSE agent to maintain the high standards of food safety within the UK .
This study will determine in the first instance whether the BSE agent can actually be transmitted to red deer. If this is possible the study will also provide a description of any resultant clinical disease, pathological changes and positive control tissue material all of which would aid surveillance for BSE in deer within the UK .
Moredun Research Institute
Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0PZ, Scotland
Telephone - 0131 445 5111, International +44 131 445 5111,
Site last updated: 22 Jun 2006
#################### https://lists.aegee.org/bse-l.html ####################
FULL TEXT ;
CREUTZFELDT JAKOB DISEASE MAD COW BASE, CWD, SCRAPIE UPDATE OCT 2007
CJD VOICE (voice for _all_ victims of human TSE)
Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
P.O. Box 42
Bacliff, Texas USA 77518