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From: TSS ()
Subject: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Mexico
Date: September 20, 2007 at 8:38 am PST

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Mexico

Leora Velásquez-Pérez,1 Daniel Rembao-Bojorquez,2 Jorge Guevara,3
Rosa María Guadarrama-Torres1 and Araceli Trejo-Contreras1
Departments of 1Epidemiology and 2Pathology, and 3Neurodegenerative Diseases Laboratory, National Institute of
Neurology and Neurosurgery, Mexico DF, Mexico

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is classified within the
group of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies
(TSE). It is a rapidly progressive illness that affects mental
functions. The average age of onset is 50 years. Various
tests can help orient the clinical diagnosis, but the confirmatory
test is still the post mortem analysis. The aim of this
study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and histopathological
characteristics of patients diagnosed as suffering
from CJD, at the National Institute of Neurology
and Neurosurgery of Mexico (NINN). An observational,
descriptive and transversal study was conducted. We collected
information concerning these cases from the
Departments of Epidemiology and Pathology, as well as
the clinical charts of the patients with a diagnosis of CJD.
Fifteen cases were registered of which three CJD cases
were definite, five probable cases were identified, and seven
were possible.The average age of the patients was 49 years.
Two definite cases were female and one was male. It is
important to improve the systems for surveillance of this
type of disease and, furthermore, to permit greater accessibility
to laboratories where the procedures necessary for
supporting diagnosis can be followed.

Key words: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, encephalopathy,
epidemiology, prion.


In Mexico there are some deficiencies in the surveillance
system, among other reasons due to limited knowledge
concerning this disease on the part of administrative
and medical staff, which causes a lack of notification of
cases and an under-registration of these diseases. On the
other hand, the National System of Epidemiological Surveillance
has not rigorously integrated and made obligatory
the notification and control of TSE, and there are no
centers or laboratories of microbiology and genetics where
tests to support the diagnosis of the disease can be conducted.
Another problem in Mexico is the fact that many of
the suspected or probable cases are never confirmed
because of the refusal of relatives to allow deceased
patients to undergo autopsies.
The aim of this study was to describe and present the
epidemiological, clinical, and histopathological characteristics
of CJD cases, detected between January 1, 2000 and
May 31, 2005 in our institution; this being one of the
world’s main neurological institutions.


Between January 1, 2000 and May 31, 2005, three definite
CJD cases were identified (20%), five probable cases were
identified (33%), and seven were classified as possible
(47%). The laboratory investigations used for the patients
are presented in Table 1.
The year of diagnosis of these patients is shown in
Table 2.
By the end of May 2005, eight patients were still alive
(53%), and seven had died (47%).
Of the seven deceased patients, the neurohistophatological
study was performed in three patients. Of these,
autopsy was carried out in two and stereotactic biopsy was
performed in one. Histopathological images of definite
cases of CJD are presented in Figure 1.
Of these 15 cases,47% were male and 53% were female.
The youngest patient was 23 years old, while the oldest was
75 (average: 49 years).
The clinical manifestations observed most frequently at
the beginning of the disease included cognitive symptoms,
behavioral changes, cephalalgia and depression.The rest of
the symptoms are shown in Table 2.
The elapsed time between the beginning of symptoms
and the patient’s arrival at the NINN for medical attention
consisted of a mean of 71 days (range: 10–210).The elapsed
time from the beginning of clinical manifestations until the
date of death and that between their arrival at the NINN
and date of death are shown in Table 2.
When analyzing their family history with respect to the
presence of CJD and any type of dementia, all patients
denied having this kind of antecedent.
The past medical history of each patient is shown in
Table 3.
Ten patients (66.6%) were married or lived as couples,
four (26.7%) were single, and only one (6.7%) was a
Regarding their educational level, nine (60%) had completed
elementary education or had taken the first 3 years
of courses and knew how to read and write; two (13%) had
completed secondary education; three (20%) had completed
high school or had at least a technical degree; and
one (7%) had a bachelor degree.
Concerning their residential locations, it was found that
seven patients (47%) lived in Mexico City, five (33%) in
the state of Mexico or suburban zones of the City, and
three (20%) in other states of the Mexican Republic. The
distribution of the cases in Mexico City, according to political
divisions of the city, is shown in Figure 2. Regarding
patients living in the state of Mexico, two (40%) were from
Chalco, one (20%) was from Cuautitlan, one (20%) was
from Ecatepec, and one (20%) from San JuanTeotihuacan.
The three states of the Mexican Republic from where the
other patients came were Guerrero, Hidalgo, and Sonora,
each with one case.
Regarding the occupational activities of the seven
female patients, six (86%) were housewives and one (14%)
was a secretary.With respect to the occupational activities
of the male patients, two (25%) were retailers, two (25%)
were office employees, and the remaining 50% was made
up of farmers, drivers, bricklayers, and students, each with
one case.

The average age in this study was 49 years, with an age
range of 23–75 years. The age range reported by Bateman
et al.13 is 45–75 years, and they mentioned that sCJD is
extremely rare under age 30. However, in our study we had
patients younger than this latter age. Nevertheless, gender
frequency was similar, with 53% of female patients and
47% of male patients. Our results are more consistent with
the work of Olov et al.32 who reported cases of CJD in
younger patients, ranging from 34 to 84 years of age.
Of the three definite cases, two were female, an interesting
fact, as in 1995, in Mexico, Martínez et al.33 reported
three cases, all of them female patients, but only one of
them had a brain biopsy result.
We are aware that PrP genotyping is important to classify
prion diseases. However, in Mexico this technique is
not available, a limitation of this study. However, we consider
that this study reveals important information about
CJD in Mexico. In the future, it would be interesting to
perform a retrospective study with genetic analysis.
Although seven cases died over a 5-year period, only
43% of them had a confirmed diagnosis. Despite the clinical
profile, the laboratory, and the imaging studies that

could be made due to the refusal by the patients’ relatives.
Unfortunately, Mexican culture is not oriented towards
organ donation and post mortem studies. Besides this fact,
specialized centers or laboratories where 14.3.3 protein
determinations can be carried out are scarce. In Mexico,
only one National Institute of Health conducts this type of
analysis, which means blood samples have to be analyzed
in foreign countries, making studies more expensive for
patients, most of whom have low economic resources.This
makes it impossible for them to obtain studies that support
the CJD diagnosis. A tendency therefore exists to underestimate
the real frequency of the disease, thus it may be
more common in Mexico than it appears. In effect, the lack
of knowledge among the population and among the
medical staff of some institutions, as well as different levels
of medical attention provided countrywide, may cause this
disease not to be consistently diagnosed.
This contrasts greatly with what happens in many European
countries, where prompt post mortem studies for
BSE have been carried out since January 1, 2001.

Fig. 2 Geographical areas of the Mexican Republic where the studied cases were located.







Table 2 indicates that most of the reported cases applied
for medical attention 1–2 months after the appearance of
symptoms, due to the limited importance patients give to
behavioral and psycho-affective disorders. Early identification
of the first symptoms in sporadic CJD, like depression,
agitation, irritability, and memory loss, is important for
public health reasons and potential timely interventions
when treatments become available.34
No similarities were observed among the occupational
activities of the studied male patients. Besides this, the fact
that most of the female patients were housewives is most
probably a reflection of the usual occupation of lowincome
Mexican women.
Forty-seven percent of the cases died, and the available
information indicates that the elapsed time from the initiation
of symptoms and the patient’s death is short – less than
a year – indicating the damaging and aggressive impact of
this disease.
In spite of the fact that CJD is sporadic and its frequency
of appearance is relatively low, it is necessary to
make patients and their relatives aware of the importance
of brain donation, to be able to reach more precise diagnoses
and avoid many of these cases being classified either
as probable or possible. Information about TSE must be
widespread, particularly that concerning CJD; epidemiological
surveillance and diagnostic systems must be established,
so that more precise data concerning the incidence
of these diseases are available, allowing for stricter control
and prevention to be imposed.
The training process should be enriched by increasing
the number of autopsies performed in the NINN. From
1998 onwards, an institutional autopsy program has been

established; however, proven cases of dementia including
prion diseases are still low.35
It is necessary to increase the study of prion diseases by
including autopsies as an integral part of medical education
programs, along with a participating academic committee
that should promote, assess, and evaluate the results



2007 Japanese Society of Neuropathology

PLEASE NOTE ''The youngest patient was 23 years old,''... TSS

Scientific Report of the European Food Safety Authority on the Assessment of the Geographical BSE Risk (GBR) of Mexico
Question number: EFSA-Q-2003-083
Adopted date: 01/07/2004



The European Food Safety Authority and its Scientific Expert Working Group on the Assessment of the Geographical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Risk (GBR) were asked by the European Commission (EC) to provide an up-to-date scientific report on the GBR in Mexico, i.e. the likelihood of the presence of one or more cattle being infected with BSE, pre-clinically as well as clinically, in Mexico. This scientific report addresses the GBR of Mexico as assessed in 2004 based on data covering the period 1980-2003.

The BSE agent was probably imported into Mexico and could have reached domestic cattle. These cattle imported could have been rendered and therefore led to an internal challenge in the mid to late 1990s. It is possible that imported meat and bone meal (MBM) into Mexico reached domestic cattle and leads to an internal challenge around 1993.

It is likely that BSE infectivity entered processing at the time of imported ‘at - risk’ MBM (1993) and at the time of slaughter of imported live ‘at - risk’ cattle (mid to late 1990s). The high level of external challenge is maintained throughout the reference period, and the system has not been made stable. Thus it is likely that BSE infectivity was recycled and propagated from approximately 1993. The risk has since grown consistently due to a maintained internal and external challenge and lack of a stable system.

EFSA concludes that the current geographical BSE risk (GBR) level is III, i.e. it is likely but not confirmed that domestic cattle are (clinically or pre-clinically) infected with the BSE-agent. The GBR is likely to increase due to continued internal and external challenge, coupled with a very unstable system.

Publication date: 20/08/2004
Last updated: 08/09/2004




Subject: Mexico SAGARPA Assessment of BSE VS EFSA Scientific Report on the Assessment of the Geographical BSE-Risk (GBR) of Mexico
Date: February 5, 2007 at 1:11 pm PST

Empresa solicitante: SAGARPA

Tipo del análisis efectuado: Cuantitativo

Temática: “Análisis de riesgo sobre la ocurrencia de la encefalopatía espongiforme bovina en México”


The bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), it is a neurological disease, invariably fatal and with long period of incubation, that affects cattle. Its etiologic agent is the prion. General consensus exists with respect to that the feeding of contaminated meat and bone flours, it is the most significant source in the dissemination and transmission of this etiologic agent. At this time there is no exist evidence that BSE is transmitted by means of embryos, their semen and in case of existing maternal transmission, if this could happened it would be in a so extremely low rate that it could not be considered like a trigger or leading factor of an epidemic. Controversy in respect to other probable ways of transmission remains. The BSE was diagnosed for the first time in 1986 in the United Kingdom. At this time it exists in 26 countries, including a Canada and the United States of North America (USA).

This document summarizes the analyzed elements and the results of the study of the evaluation of the risk factors, of the epidemiology surveillance and related activities, as well as the quantitative estimation of the risk with respect to the probability of introduction of the disease to the Mexican herd.


Demography and characteristics of the Mexican cattle industry: Cattle is one of the main activities in the Mexican farming sector, due to its contribution in the supply of meat (beef) products, dairy, among others; as well as its participation in the international trade on cattle exports, mainly to the United States of North America.

According to data of the 2001, cattle population is of 30.620.933 of heads, of which 28.480.803 are beef cattle and 2.140.130 dairy cattle. The main cattle production states are located in the center-north, where its operation is intensive and its feeding is based on grains; as well as in the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and the south-southeastern, with intensive programs and feeding is based mainly on the pasturing (grass). The national dairy herd, is calculated as specialized or technified that represent 17,44% of the herd, semi-specialized 14,90% of the herd, double-purpose herd (beef and dairy) 59,68% and the small family-run herd or the referred as “backyard” (traspatio) 7,98%.Previous numbers are to be considered as an estimation of the dairy livestock inventory by production units. Nevertheless, it is necessary to consider that all races of pure breed can be found in anyone of those groups.

Legal grounds: Mexico counts on a normative frame that covers (deals with) the relevant aspects of the Epidemiology Surveillance of the BSE, like the Federal Law of Animal Health, the Federal Law of Metrology and Regulation, the General Law of Health and several Mexican Official Norms (NOM-009-Z00-1994, Sanitary process of the meat, NOM-030-ZOO-1995, Specifications and procedures for the import of beef, carcasses, viscera and offal at zoo-sanitary inspection points, NOM-061-ZOO-1999, Zoo-sanitary specifications of nutritional products destined for animal feed and NOM-060-ZOO-1999, Zoo-sanitary specifications for the transformation of animals offal and its use in animal feeding). Wider and extended covertures of these regulations were evaluated.

Veterinary infrastructure: The veterinary services in the country are structural and normative organized by the Mexican State through the Secretariat of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural Affairs, Fishery and Alimentary (SAGARPA) Federally Empower, that is to say, that has the capacity and authority to negotiate an to come to agreement with the States Governments that integrate the Republic; to coordinate itself with the other Secretariats of State; to deal with organizations of the Private and Social sector as well as with the rest of the Civil Society as a whole.

The National Service of Health, Food Safety and Ag-alimentary Quality (SENASICA), it is an organism of this Secretariat, which has attributions in the matter of vegetable health, animal health and ag-alimentary safety and is conformed by the following main directorates: Sanidad Vegetal, Salud Animal, Inocuidad Agroalimentaria, Acuícola y Pesquera, Inspección Fitozoosanitaria, (equivalent to U.S. APHIS, FSIS and VS –Veterinary Services) Jurídica, Administración e Informática. In accordance with the assigned attributions, it corresponds to central offices the substantive part and the operative part, to the personnel assigned to the State Delegations of the SAGARPA and other instances of the SENASICA.

Consequently, the four main areas are assigned to the Main directorate of Salud Animal-Animal Health (DGSA) and to the Main directorate of Inspección Fotozoosanitaria-Plant Inspection (DGIF) and Veterinary Services (SV) in Mexico are in charge of: surveillance, epidemiology, animal movement, zoo-sanitary campaigns and emergencies.

Imports This is perhaps one of the medullar points, in the sense that it represents the information of the imports made during the risk periods and therefore, it provides the fundamental information for the risk assessment. In 1991, Mexico implemented measures to avoid the appearance of BSE, as the disease had become a serious worldwide problem, reason why, live bovines imports were prohibited, beef, beef products and by-products and in 1994 flour of meat and bone from countries affected by this disease was also prohibited and in the 2000 MBM feeding ban was imposed. In order to mitigate the risk of transmission of the EEB, a revision of the established requirements for import for ruminants’ products began.

Cattle imports and its products and by-products, as well as specific risk materials played a very important role in this study, where considerable amounts of cattle imports from countries now affected by BSE were identified, countries that at the time of the import they remained clean and therefore just some preventive risk measures were in place.

Slaughter, Cattle disposition and Offal.- Different cattle slaughter schemes were analyzed as well as the processes in use, finding some significant differences among them, being the most important the sanitary jurisdiction of the organizations that regulate us.

In Mexico, the slaughter is divided in three different systems, Federal Inspection Type Plants (TIF), which has been increased in the past years; in 1992 they participated with the 13,5%, in 1997 with the 19,40% and in 2002 with the 26,60% of the national total. In the case of the municipal slaughterhouses from 1992 to 1997, their slaughtered animals corresponded to the 49,5% and for 2002 it was increased to 73,4%, whereas the slaughter in private plants decreased of 37,10% in 1992 to 31,10%, in 1997 and from 1998 to date, we have no information.

The procedures to be followed by the establishments in the animal slaughter and those that industrialize, process, packing, chilled/froze beef products or by-products for human consumption, in order to obtain products of optimal hygienic quality, are written in the NOM-009-ZOO-1994 “sanitary Process of Beef”.

The direct consumption of beef can be stratified in three great destinies, differentiated by the market that are destined to, the rural one, the one of small centers of population, (and) the one of the big cities, characterized each one of them by its consumption and the partial or integral industrialization by direct consumer and by means of commercialization or points of sale, as well as for the origin of the own supplier.(?)

Rendering of Cattle Products.

The processes applied by the rendering plants for obtaining the protein from inedible offal, were evaluated.

Food elaboration and its use for animal feeding.- This analysis was focused in the processes of food elaboration for animal consumption.

In Mexico, the control in the production of food from animal origin, as much as the elaboration of the meat flour as that of the balanced food manufacture it is regulated by the Mexican Official Norm NOM-061-ZOO-1999, “Zoo-sanitary Specifications of nutritional products for animal consumption”, which bans the use of MBM flours of ruminant origin or any mixture that contains it for the elaboration of balanced meals for ruminants, and the Mexican Official Norm NOM-060-ZOO-1999, “Zoo-sanitary Specifications for the transformation of animal offal and its use in the animal feeding”.

In accordance with the Section of Manufacturers of Balanced Food for Animals of the National Camera of the Industry of Transformation (CANACINTRA), there are 396 balanced food plants registered, same that have the capacity to produce more than 20 million tons a year, according to the numbers registered during 1999-2002. 63% of such plants are integrated and produce 64% of the animal feed produced nationwide, the rest corresponds to commercial plants.

The animal feed produced by the integrated plants, that is the most significant part, during the 2002 it produced the 58,7% of the products destined for raising of poultry, the 16,5% for swine, the 14,3% for dairy and 9,2% for feedlots (cattle) and 1,3% for other species.

As far as the composition of the main raw materials to produce balanced foods, these mainly correspond in 45% to domestic sorghum and 55% sorghum concentrated; 16% to domestic yellow maize and 84% imported; 91% domestic protein pastes and 9% imported; 80% of other domestic forage grains (broken maize, wheat, barley, oats, etc.) and 20% imported and other ingredients (wheat by-products, maize, vitamins, minerals, oils, etc.).






Neuropathies in Mexico, Epidemiology Surveillance Program.- For this analysis, the legal elements related to the notification of the BSE were taken into account, in Mexico, as well as the activities made by the Commission Mexico - United States for the Prevention of the Aftosa Fever and Other Exotic Diseases of Animals (CPA), official entity in charge of carrying out this activity and other connected activities as training, taking of samples and the diagnosis of laboratory.

BSE Diagnosis.

Veterinary Services diagnoses capacity was evaluated as well as its adherence to the international standards, according to what is indicated by the International Organization of Animal Health (OIE), as well as the processes of taking and shipping of samples.

For the diagnosis of the BSE, the OIE recommends five laboratory tests: Histopathology (HP), Immunohistochemistry (IHQ), Western blot (immunotransferency), ELISA (enzimoinmunoassay) and Bio-assay in mouse. At this time Mexico counts with two laboratories of diagnosis for this disease: the National Center of Services of Diagnosis in Animal Health (CENASA) and the Laboratory of high security of the CPA. The CENASA performs the histopathology test and at the CPA the Immunohistochemistry test is carried out.

The reception of samples at CPA, it depends to a great extent on the economic resources which are accounted for this activity, expense that is approximately of $400,00 ($ 36.50 USD.) per sample received (includes the material for conservation, packing and shipping), reason for what, have to wait for the collection of several to be sent at the same time and in order to reduce costs, but delaying the result. As the CPA does not have a certified pathologist to carry-out the HP test technique, these samples are sent to the CENASA for their diagnosis; this implies that such samples are stored by approximately one week, since it doesn’t have the human resources for its transfer.

The main problem at CENASA, for the right operation of the diagnosis of the BSE, it is the lack of coordination on shipping and receiving of samples, which is not done accordingly to the calendar of the laboratory and the operative area, because in a short period of time the expected/projected number of samples is exceeded, resulting in delays in accomplishment of the tests and the disposition in excess of material and human resources.

At this moment, the techniques are being standardized, Immunohistochemistry at the CENASA and the western blot (immunmotransferency) at the CPA, which will allow us to have more tools for the diagnose in Mexico; in addition, the WB allow us to count on another technique of the higher sensitivity and specificity, that guarantees optimal result in less time (approximately 8 hours).

It must be mentioned that, we have had contemplated the formation of a network of laboratories of diagnosis of TSE´s to specialized on the HP technique, where we will have 6 regional laboratories and 4 universities involved, this will in the future allow the processing and diagnosis of the sample from its place of origin and only its confirmation by other techniques at central level. For this, we already count with the procedure for the authorization and verification of a laboratory of histopathology for the diagnosis of the BSE.

Monetary Compensation to cattle dealers: Because the BSE is considered as an exotic disease, a contingency fund that could be put to work in case the disease appears, does not exist at this time.

In the case of the contingency funds, the national campaign for diseases relies on a section on this subject. Nevertheless, for the exotic diseases official norms do not exist and article 36 of the Federal Law of Animal Health only establishes that will be due to create, but it does not explain the mechanism to be considered for its creation.

The pre-established form to compensate the possible producers that are themselves affected by the presence of BSE in their cattle, it will be from the federal budget that is agreed upon the program Alliance for the Country for the corresponding fiscal year.

In this sense, it is necessary to pinpoint that the minimum amount to consider for this budget will be a 4% of the total assigned to the Fito-zoo-sanitary Contingencies Plan on behalf of the Federal Government.

This will have a distribution by federal entity, which a specific amount will be able to be assigned to joint, if necessary, to the DINESA against the BSE. Also, the State Governments will proportionally contribute an equal amount to the federal to be incorporated to the compensation funds of the Device of Emergency. As for the cattlemen, they will have to come-up with resources equivalent to the third part of the total amount assigned by the Federal and State governments.

Animal identification and traceability of cattle products.- Different elements were considered with which Mexico counts on to carry out the traceability of animals and its products upon a sanitary problem, including the animal identification and the organizations related to this activity.

Actually, the identification system of the cattle in Mexico is organized in two forms, one State-ID with aims of demonstration of property and control of cattle rustling and another Federal-ID, with aims of identification for the development of the zoo-sanitary campaigns against the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis, first it is based on the registry and recognition of the Hot-Brands of each producer, and the second in addition to the previous system, one is based on a metallic earring of blue color with a number of identification, which is described in the NOM-031-ZOO-1995, Campaña Nacional Contra la Tuberculosis Bovina (Mycobacterium bovis), National Campaign Against Bovine Tuberculosis.

This procedure assigns a number to an animal, which is used during zoo-sanitary surveillance campaigns, these activities are registered along with an identification number, in a document called test-opinion, in which it is written down, in addition to the test results applied to the animals, the identification and data of the cattle herd and ranch of origin of the animal for its later traceability. This test-opinion is along with the certificate of “Herd free of bovine tuberculosis” as described in the same Mexican Official Norm.

According to the procedure previously described, in Mexico, there were around 3.291 registered herds with 282.932 heads of bovines identified in 2003, that represents 0,94% of the total population in this country.

Nevertheless, in the same NOM, it’s expressed in point 11 referring to mobilization that the animals coming from disease-free herds, they will be able to be mobilized to any destination within the national territory with no need to be tested for tuberculosis before its mobilization, if the following requirements are met: obtain a zoo-sanitary certificate, and for the zoo-sanitary certificate to be issued, certification that they come from a disease-free herd and that the animals must have a disease-free herd identification


Considering that in order to mobilize the animals it is necessary to have a valid disease-free zoo-sanitary certificate, we can estimate that there are more than 3,431,022 identified animals, according to the information obtained from the Statistical Report of the Cattle Mobilization of FY2000, with information captured up to the 24 of August of 2001 by the National Organism of Herd Certification, A.C., that represents the 11,4% of the bovine total population on which we can observe that more than 50% of these mobilizations are directed to slaughterhouses, 17% to feedlots, 15% for export and 11% for pasturing.

Based on the above, experience of a suitable animal traceability is shown specially in the case of the animals destined to be exported, where the USDA when finding a positive animal reactor to the tests of tuberculosis in the United States, it has been possible to trace it back to its the original herd; on the other hand, the identification system used on dairy cattle, which counts on a homogenous system of identification for production and genetic improvement control, nevertheless, this mechanism although is available for the federal government, it would make use of, only in the presence of a serious epidemiology event.

Educational Programs, Awareness and Training.- The CPA, one of its activities, is to maintain a permanent program of training courses on exotic diseases of the animals, on a national context. In 1994, BSE awareness programs were incorporated , with the diffusion of information, talks and courses on the following areas: disease history, economic consequences, etiology, transmission mechanisms, clinical signage, histopathology injuries, differential diagnosis, measures of prevention and activities of epidemiologist surveillance, supported by audio-visual means, these programs are taken to a diverse audience, including the students of the last semesters of Veterinary Medicine, to the personnel that conforms the Quarantine National System, as well as Veterinary Doctors, government, private and to other specialists.

ESTIMATION OF RISK (Risk Assessment)

According to the qualitative estimation in this assessment, it was determined that the risk of occurrence of the disease in the bovine population, is low.

The quantitative estimation index was located at 5.268908E 08 of the risk of disease exposure of the national herd, number that represents numerically like a low probability of occurrence of the problem in Mexico.



The BSE is a disease that was described for the first time in 1986, nevertheless, today, epidemiologists have many unanswered questions on how is transmitted.

The introduction of the BSE in Mexico would cause a serious socioeconomic impact, commercial, political and probably of public health concern, because the presence of the disease would restrict sanitarily and commercially, disrupting the actual distribution of meat products at national level and to other countries, independently of the impact in the consumption of the inhabitants with respect to the beef consumption and products of bovine origin.

Considering the way of transmission, in case of a breakout, the native animals that are at greater risk of being infected in Mexico, those are the dairy cattle in specialized systems and the bovines at feedlots in the arid and tropical regions.

In Mexico, we got Laws, Mexican Official Norms and Agreements, that cover relevant aspects of the epidemiology surveillance of the BSE, same that must be fortified in its operative phase, mainly in its application and enforcement.

The Mexican Official Norm NOM-030-ZOO-1995, Specifications and procedures for the import of beef, carcasses, viscera and offal at zoo-sanitary inspection points, prohibits the import of cattle products, however, fresh beef has been imported, chilled, frozen and beef preparations, as long as it comes from animals smaller of thirty months of age, which diminishes the risk but does not exclude it.

The evaluation showed that the four great areas of concern are assigned to the Main Directorate of Animal Health (DGSA) and to the Main Directorate of Fito-zoo-sanitary Inspection (DGIF); responsibility of the Veterinary Services in Mexico, in relation to the BSE are: epidemiology surveillance, animal movement control, zoo-sanitary campaigns and emergencies; functionality and capability of communicating among them was evaluated as we as the capacity of response before a sanitary emergency caused by the BSE.

It is necessary to increase and to better coordination of the surveillance activities, particularity between the areas of diagnoses and operational, for the correct execution of the surveillance activities in the field.

The imported bovines (1996-2003) have been slaughtered and those destined to improve genetics, once they conclude their productive life and are discarded, will also be slaughtered.

The actions of detection of downer-cows need to be reinforced for its processing at TIF plants, till now a deficient activity, where the majority of the animals with such clinical characteristics, regularly are not taken this plants but rather are slaughtered at same ranch/location and consumed regionally or they are taken to slaughterhouses without supervision and sanitary inspection.

Ante mortem inspections need to be reinforced at Federal Inspection Type Plants, municipal and private slaughterhouses, mainly in these two last ones, with the purpose of detecting bovines clinically affected by BSE.

There is commercial interest to incorporate flours of meat and bone of ruminants in the rations destined to the feeding of the bovines, like an alternative source of protein matter, reason why official mechanisms must be reinforced in preventing this type of illegal practices.

One of the tools in preventing the BSE is to avoid the exposure of the native bovines to the consumption of presumably contaminated feed with the pathological agent or unless is processed by means of a thermal process that guarantees its inactivation. However, the heat treatment that the flours of meat and bone are put under in XXXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXXX XXXXXX XXXXXX XXXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXX XXXXX XXXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXX during 20 minutes), even though this one, it does not guarantee the destruction of the prion either, but it reduces its infectivity significantly.

The Country counts on regulations, in respect to the transformation of offal (NOM-061-ZOO-1999), there still are deficiencies as to the number and qualification of the personnel responsible in supervising their fulfillment through inspection and verification.

Deficiencies in the availability of technical information at official and private levels were detected, crucial information necessary for the elaboration of the present assessment, such as the case of the information on product imports and on rendering plants, were not available for the study.

Blood was not considered as a potential source of transmission of the BSE, by-product in form of flour (dry blood), that is also produced by the rendering plants and is used in animals feeds.

The BSE epidemiology surveillance program in Mexico must be reinforced by focusing on a target animal study (bovine suspected of BSE and with suggestive clinical signs of the disease). On the other hand, as a result from this study, we found that a percentage of the obtained samples for BSE testing have been inadequately collected and among other causes were: absence of cerebral stem, incomplete cerebral stem, over-manipulated samples, advanced changes (decompose) postmortem, not enough tissue to work on, low concentration of conservative (solution) or samples taken from inadequate age of animal (too young); showing all of these, a necessity to review these procedures.

It was also detected the fact that, as a routine practice the samples sent for the diagnosis of bovine rabies, whenever they come out positive to this disease, they are no longer processed for the BSE testing, discarding with this, the possibility of finding both diseases in a same animal, rabies virus and the BSE prion. It is also concluded that with the loss of diagnosis material, it prevented us from obtaining valuable epidemiology information useful in restructuring our surveillance program.

The identification of the cattle, as well as the traceability of its products and by-products, presents serious deficiencies at national level, which is important in case the BSE is detected in the Country, given its importance like a primordial component to trace, to prevent and to eradicate this and other animal diseases, turning out to be an additional vital tool to determine the dissemination degree in case of break-out in the country, that would immediately allow us to be able to establish its origin (native or imported) and to take the appropriate counter-epidemic measures.

From 1994, the Commission Mexico - United States for the Prevention of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) and other Exotic Diseases (CPA), it has carried out activities of awareness and training on BSE, however, this has been centered to certain zones of the country, leaving some other zones, particularly the rural zones without cover, same that can provide with valuable epidemiology information and some cases for diagnosis of neuropathy in ruminants.

According to the analysis made on the risk assessment in its qualitative modality, it is considered like low-risk, the risk of introduction of the BSE to the national herd, whereas the quantitative study locates it in values of 5.268908E-08.


We ought:

to reinforce the inspection and supervision activities by the sanitary authority of the SAGARPA over all of those involved in the cattle production chain, in respect to the fulfillment and application of the established technical regulations expressed on the official norms on the monitoring of BSE, specially the NOM-060-ZOO-1999, Zoo-sanitary specifications for the transformation of animals offal and its use in animal feeding and the NOM-061-ZOO-1999, Zoo-sanitary specifications of nutritional products for animal consumption;

to increase the number of inspectors (Vet Doctors) as much as governmental as private, with a vision of having a better supervision of the rendering plants and feed factories. It is recommendable that such inspectors have a veterinary doctor’s degree.

to reinforce the active epidemiology surveillance subsystem, having special attention to aim at target animals and the size of the statistical test, as well as its stratification at national level;

to review, to update and to homologate the criteria and definitions of the Mexican official norms related to the monitoring of the BSE and the requirements of import, according to norms NOM-008, NOM-030 and NOM-060;

to provide technical and legal elements in the official norms, that may allow to optimize the use of financial and human resources (federal, state and private), with the purpose of that the material and human infrastructure, the installed diagnoses and the potential, can be used with greater efficiency, in the prevention activities, diagnosis and surveillance of the BSE in Mexico;

to homologate the mechanism of training in the obtaining of the samples for the BSE, using the technique of the teaspoon, by means of a national program;

to have a certified pathologist for the high security laboratory of the CPA, because this situation of not having one, causes the delay in the processing of samples, as well as the loss of economic resources by requiring the support of the CENASA;

to plan the taking of samples at a national level and to coordinate its shipment to the CPA for its processing in the laboratory of high security or its re-expedition to the CENASA, with the purpose of optimizing the diagnosis;

to obtain funds and allocate them at each state, in order to compensate cattle dealers affected by the animal culling at risk by BSE, in case of BSE showing up in Mexico, the same or similar mechanism are to established for the handling of monetary compensation, like the one used on the Alliance for the Country or to extend the already existing state government faculties, by means of an exclusive and specific account for the implementation of BSE comp payment.

to implement a national animal identification and traceability system, its products and by-products, that it may allow us to apply prevention measures and control of diseases, as it would be the case of the BSE.

With foundation in Article 14, fraction VI, of the Federal Law of Transparency and Access to the Governmental Public Information, the following paragraphs have been blocked:

Justification of the blockade (p. 6, paragraph 1):

Gallinaza and pollinaza- feather meal (hay bed or substrate on which birds grow up, constituted by rice husk, straw or another type of hay, agriculturist, that at the end of the raising cycle of young hens or chicken, contains the feces of the animals that were bred on it, as well as rest of non-consumed food by the birds), it has been considered in multiple occasions, like an element of potential risk in the transmission of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), when it is used to feed ruminants. The risk is generated, as it is common, the bird feed, contains flours of meat and bone of ruminant like source of protein. In this way, in theory, if some of the bovines with which the meat and bone flour was prepared as bird feed were infected with the BSE prion and given the high resistance of the agent (prion) to high temperatures, in the industrial process as the making of the flour, like the making of the nutritional concentrated feed for birds, and even the passage by digestive-tract of the bird, it would not guarantee the destruction of the BSE prion, reason why the possibility would exist, when gallinaza or pollinaza is used in the feeding of ruminants, this could infect susceptible ruminants.

With foundation in Article 14, fraction VI, of the Federal Law of Transparency and Access to the Governmental Public Information, the following paragraphs have been blocked:

Justification of the blockade (p. 6, paragraph 2):

As much gallinaza as pollinaza, they can contain up to a 3% of wasted food, independently of bird feces that could also contain the prion, all implying that the flours of meat and bone of bovine origin, can be consumed by other bovines and by doing this, constituting a possible situation of BSE risk.

Norma NOM-060-ZOO-1999 Zoo-sanitary specifications for the transformation of animal’s offal and its use in animal feeding and the NOM-061-ZOO-1999 Zoo-sanitary Specifications of nutritional products for animal consumption, they clearly indicate the prohibition to feed ruminants with flours of meat and bone of ruminant origin, however, the prohibition to feed ruminants with gallinaza or pollinaza, is not contemplated in these norms.

With foundation in Article 14, fraction VI, of the Federal Law of Transparency and Access to the Governmental Public Information, the following paragraphs have been blocked:

Justification of the blockade (p. 6, paragraph 3):

Other elements to consider are the production cycles of the farms of birds in Mexico, a common practice is that when a cycle is reached (ended) “all inside, all outside”, and the pollinaza and gallinaza are destined to feed the cattle. Depending on the type and the characteristics of the bed, it is possible to calculate an approximated weight of 13,9 kg. by square meter of bird farm surface.

With foundation in Article 14, fraction VI, of the Federal Law of Transparency and Access to the Governmental Public Information, the following paragraphs have been blocked:

Justification of the blockade (p. 6, paragraph 4):

In the Mexican market, two types of products are accepted: pollinaza and gallinaza, which has been consolidated as a production system, considering that near 90% of the feces are used as ruminant’s feed, with prices reaching near those of cereal grains, the rest is used in agriculture.

With foundation in Article 14, fraction VI, of the Federal Law of Transparency and Access to the Governmental Public Information, the following paragraphs have been blocked:

Justification of the blockade (p. 6, paragraph 5):

The use of the animal feces like source of high nutrients supply, it obeys mainly to its high content of mineral matter and non-protein nitrogen. In general, nitrogen is concentrated in greater amount in bird feces. What is doubtless, it is that the feces are raw material available all the year long for animal feeding, especially bovines.

The FAO (1980) made a description of the physical composition of pollinaza as it is detailed next:

Feces 62%

Bed 31%

Wasted Feed 3%

Feathers 2%

Unknown ingredients related to fresh matter 2%

Source: The FAO. Feed from Wastes Animal: State of knowledge, Production animal and Health, to paper 18. Rome, Italy 1980.


Making public the information that has been eliminated of the report, it would open the door for those in the grain business to use it for their benefit and by pressing the government/the authority to establish a NOM banning such products as ruminant feed. This would bring/cause an important alteration in the commercialization of these products nationwide, which in turn would remarkably increase the production costs of the cattle in feed lots. Today, we foresee escalating grains prices at medium term, originated by its use in the ethanol production; this would aggravate the situation and force a NOM as described before, which in addition, if our sanitary status with respect to the BSE is considered low, it would be obviously excessive cost and highly harmful for the producer of birds and cattle. It is why, that it was decided to block the reference information.

With foundation in Article 14, fraction VI, of the Federal Law of Transparency and Access to the Governmental Public Information, the following paragraphs have been blocked:

Justification of the blockade (p. 12, paragraph 3):

During the period between 1996 to 2003 years in which, considering the long period of incubation of the BSE, the disease was already present in the United States of America and Canada, Mexico as usual, imported considerable amounts of calves destined for dairy production. In the same term “bullfight” bulls from Spain were imported once Europe reached a free status from FMD, same that allowed the import of some cattle for reproduction from other European countries, with exception of the United Kingdom and Ireland, countries in which BSE already existed.

In all the cases these imports were immediately stopped even before the confirmation of BSE in those countries, nevertheless, as already indicated, the ample period of incubation of the disease, those imports are looked as of certain risk, even though in that moment they were not.

The nonexistence of a national animal identification and traceability system at that time made it impossible to establish the destiny of most of those animals and to even know if they have been eliminated at the end of its productive life. It is possible to indicate that the recent imports of heifers coming from the United States of America and in the near future from Canada, new requirements and actions that guarantee their traceability and other measures to mitigate the BSE risk, are in place.

Even though during the administration of the Lic. Vicente Fox, the SAGARPA made a concerted effort to establish the National System of Individual Cattle Identification (SINIIGA), the magnitude, cost and coverage of the project, its conclusion in the short and medium term are way far distant, what implies that it will be long time before Mexico can count on a suitable (working) national system of identification and traceability of animals and products of origin animal.

The blockade of the above paragraph obeys to the convenience of not exposing to the Federal Government to unnecessarily critics that even though funded, it would not contribute to the solution of a problem that, although is of urgent attention, by its magnitude and cost, it exceeds in much, the present capacities as much of the Government, like of the National Cattlemen Sector. The critic would sustain in that what it is said in such paragraph is purely speculative, without possibility of corroborating it documentarily.


Hola Amigo Terry,

Finally, here is a translation - if you can call it that - i'm not happy with it but guess that some paragraphs are very literally translated (poorest job i have ever done translating a document), please read it and if something is not clear enough or not right just let me know it and i'll correct it...

If you don't find anything of importance; if it is to vague and shows that they have done nothing about it; if somehow it gives you the impresion that they don't know a thing and are trying to cover their butts in a very stupid way;...yea! you got the right impression!!

All they are saying it's a "mea culpa" and we ought to do this and that; we don't know how they came in or where they are; we are looking into it; we screwed up all the BSE testing and we don't know how to do it right; it is too costly and we don't have the money; we didn't do it, past administration did it; we are trying to fix it; etc.,

All of the above and more, but we are following OIE rules, we have NO BSE anywhere and risk is extremely low or null, but CATTLEMEN WIL BE COMPENSATED!!

Conclusion- they are a bunch of murderers and me a national security threat for having them to admit it!! .....Oh my Lord!

snip...end (tss)

Have a wonderful weekend and our best regards,



EFSA Scientific Report on the Assessment of the Geographical BSE-Risk (GBR) of Mexico

Last updated: 8 September 2004 Publication Date: 20 August 2004

Adopted July 2004 (Question N° EFSA-Q-2003-083)

Summary of the Scientific Report

The European Food Safety Authority and its Scientific Expert Working Group on the Assessment of the Geographical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Risk (GBR) were asked by the European Commission (EC) to provide an up-to-date scientific report on the GBR in Mexico, i.e. the likelihood of the presence of one or more cattle being infected with BSE, pre-clinically as well as clinically, in Mexico. This scientific report addresses the GBR of Mexico as assessed in 2004 based on data covering the period 1980-2003.

The BSE agent was probably imported into Mexico and could have reached domestic cattle. These cattle imported could have been rendered and therefore led to an internal challenge in the mid to late 1990s. It is possible that imported meat and bone meal (MBM) into Mexico reached domestic cattle and leads to an internal challenge around 1993.

It is likely that BSE infectivity entered processing at the time of imported ‘at - risk’ MBM (1993) and at the time of slaughter of imported live ‘at - risk’ cattle (mid to late 1990s). The high level of external challenge is maintained throughout the reference period, and the system has not been made stable. Thus it is likely that BSE infectivity was recycled and propagated from approximately 1993. The risk has since grown consistently due to a maintained internal and external challenge and lack of a stable system.

EFSA concludes that the current geographical BSE risk (GBR) level is III, i.e. it is likely but not confirmed that domestic cattle are (clinically or pre-clinically) infected with the BSE-agent. The GBR is likely to increase due to continued internal and external challenge, coupled with a very unstable system.

Rocio on July 21, 2006 12:55 PM
I hope some one of the foundation speak spanish....I am from Mexico, My father has CJD, his mom, 2 brothers and his sister are dead because of the same sickness...I cant understand...why my family...and why my dad??? he is 64, he still alive...he doesnt know he is sick...because he is losting his he feells good...I dont have enough vocabulary but I feell terrible, In Mexico anydody knows about this sickness so is difficult for us because we have to be in contact from San Francisco.....the only think I talk with someone who had the same problem.....thank you and sorry for my written...(I dont speak neither write a good english)



Reyes M, Aguilar S, Corona R, Vega I
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Case report and literature review
Original title: Enfermedad de Creutzfeldt-Jakob: Reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura
Med Sur 2002; 9 (2): 79-87


Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a neurodegenerative and neuroselective entity, unusually reported in Mexico. We report a case of a 66 year-old women patient with rapidly progressive dementia, associated with cerebellum syndrome, myoclonus, abnormal movements and motor dysfunction, with diagnostic studies positively suggesting Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The clinical characteristics and diagnostic studies are presented. A review of the literature discussing pathogenic mechanisms, variants of the disease and diagnostic clues, are also presented.


> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a neurodegenerative and neuroselective entity,

> unusually reported in Mexico

UNUSUALLY REPORTED is key word here. ...TSS


Subject: Re: Mexico SAGARPA Assessment of BSE VS EFSA Scientific Report on the Assessment of the Geographical BSE-Risk (GBR) of Mexico
Date: February 11, 2007 at 10:24 am PST

In Reply to: Mexico SAGARPA Assessment of BSE VS EFSA Scientific Report on the Assessment of the Geographical BSE-Risk (GBR) of Mexico posted by TSS on February 5, 2007 at 1:11 pm:

Dear Ing. Ruiz Garcia,

This is to acknowledge receipt of a the document “Opinion of Analysis of Risk – Occurrence of BSE in Mexico”, same which it differs a lot from what a “Risk Assessment” per se is, but it does illustrate and shows us the great deficiencies of scientific resources as well as economic, as that of organization, infrastructure, professional human resources, communication, statistical and internal controls, among others; it must be stated that it is not privative of Mexico, but to us our main concern is what is not being done, what is being done and how it is done in our Country.

If we compared the previous answer we got to our appeal to the present Opinion, the discrepancies are abysmal (huge) with exception of two and firm statements and those are: “we have strictly followed the norms/recommendations of the OIE and that the BSE risk is minimum or null”, statements made without producing or providing any evidence to support such claims nor how is that you have reached to such conclusions. In abundance I may say that most of the nations that have succumbed to BSE have had a strict adherence to such OIE’s lax norms (recommendations).

A study of such magnitude and relevance, it requires of updated information and just to show you I’ll mention some of your outdated data in the first paragraph of “Introduction” we found three big discrepancies:

· It has been verified scientifically that cattle feeding with flours of contaminated meat and bone ARE the most significant source of dissemination and transmission of this etiologic agent; the Opinion states: “general consensus exists that they are,”

· It has been scientifically verified the maternal transmission; the Opinion says that: “there is no evidence and in case that it does exist”,

· BSE is found (officially recognized) in 34 countries and not only in 26 as it is indicated.

(Such scientific reports were submitted as support to our commentaries before COFEMER on the “Project of Modification to the Official Norm Mexicana NOM-030-ZOO-1995, Specifications and procedures for the import of beef, carcasses, viscera and offal at zoo-sanitary inspection points

Since1995 the scientific researches showed the world that as little as of 1 gram of infected material was enough for a cattle to develop BSE (BSE Inquiry Statement No. 145D outws/s145d.pdf) and today in light of the scientific report “Risk of oral infection with bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent in primates”, ( Published online January 27, 2005 ), it is confirmed and better yet, narrowing it down to establish that only 1 mg (ONE mg) milligram may infect one in fifteen heads of cattle orally fed, that is 7%, while the infected brain of a cattle is sufficient to contaminate up to 700 heads of cattle.

The used heat treatments in inactivating the prion infectivity have demonstrated its inefficiency on doing it as it only reduces its contamination but it does not eliminate them. It has been documented that after exposure to 600º C and completely ashed, the brain samples when reconstituted with saline to their original weights, transmitted the disease, maintaning its infectivity.

The contamination of feed by blood must be considered of high risk and do not underestimate its infectivity in any of its presentations, liquid, dry or as a milk substitute.

The feeding bans on MBM, as well as on the Gallinaza and Pollinaza, in the United States as in Canada and our Country, they have never been observed or respected and the international regulations (OIE) have been played down by creating our own rules –NOMs- have only filled-out (checked-out) questionnaires but the feeding practice continues; the Law and the NOMs are “dead regulations” for their lack of enforcement and null monitoring; the use and abuse of the Clenbuterol in cattle feeding resulting in the poisoning of hundreds of families every year, are a sample of it.

Regarding the import of live cattle, organs and viscera classified as SRM, as well as flours of meat and bone (MBM) coming from countries with BSE as Canada and the United States continue to flow through our borders even though its commercialization is forbidden by the OIE and to mention three examples in imports from U.S.A. during the 2005 we have:
· 466 Bovines – live
· 79.160 kg. Bovine Brains
· 107.632 Tons Flours of Meat and Bone - MBM
(source: USDA, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, US Census Bureau and NRA)

The declaration of “Closed and Sealed Borders” at the appearance of the first case of “mad-cow” in the United States in the period from December 24, 2003 through March 2004, according to information in our hands, borders were never closed or sealed to the import of such products, it was only reduced. Live bovines imports never ceased, it was also reduced.

The idea that eating beef from bovines younger than 30 months of age does not represent any risk, it’s a lie since there are records of animals of 21 months of age that have given positive to BSE test, not to forget the sub-clinical cases, apparently healthy animals that have given positive to the test.

As far as the Cattle Identification National System - SINIIGA – It was set in place as of June 2003, on which SAGARPA projects a fifteen years “investment” of almost $ 43.000 Million Pesos for a system (French-American-Mexican) totally obsolete and no adherence to any international rule or norm (ISO), on which I have submitted my opinion and commentaries before COFEMER and can be consulted in: cofemer.gob.MXfilev99/_B00062497.pdf

It is undeniable the great work and merits that SENASICA has obtained in other areas, but that is no reason to have neglected/fail on TSEs, although they are not of fast dissemination or of a spectacular morbidity due to its long “incubation” period and even though its symptomatology may be manifested or not, they are incurables diseases, without treatment and invariably mortal.

In Mexico (1998-2002) there are 44 registered human deaths by CJD- Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease which is caused by eating beef contaminated by BASE (Request of Information No 0001200024304, May 04, 2004). “Incubation” time in humans it varies from 2 to 45 years, depending the route on infection and the genetic conformation of the infected person.

A peculiar data; according to investigations carried out by Dr. Laura Manuelidis, 13% of the people in her project and who had been diagnosed and treated for Alzheimer in U.S.A., in fact they suffered CJD. According to the CONAPO (2004) in Mexico there are 700.000 people who suffer Alzheimer… would you dare to find out?

SAGARPA must assume its responsibility and let go protecting groups without scruples in exchange for the wellbeing of the rest of the population. Such attitudes and ridicules have already been translated in lost of human lives and it will continue costing human lives.

Eng. Ruiz Garcia, as you can see, there is a lot of information out there and everywhere beyond the “official scope” which SAGARPA ignores or tries to hide, which is worse.

I could discuss every topic with you and refute every assertion or excuse SAGARPA makes on such document and whose content lacks of minimum seriousness, reason why I will look for the most appropriate forum to expose SAGARPA
Again, I appreciate your fine attentions and look forward next year in obtaining a complete and unrestricted copy of the Analysis of Risk - Occurrence BSE in Mexico and all its supporting documents.


Enrique M. Maldonado

e-mailed 01-15-07

Lic. Alonso Lujambio Irazábal, Comisionado Presidente, IFAI
Lic. Xochitl Castro, Asistente del Comisionado Presidente, IFAI


18 January 2007 - Draft minutes of the SEAC 95 meeting (426 KB) held on 7
December 2006 are now available.


64. A member noted that at the recent Neuroprion meeting, a study was
presented showing that in transgenic mice BSE passaged in sheep may be more
virulent and infectious to a wider range of species than bovine derived BSE.

Other work presented suggested that BSE and bovine amyloidotic spongiform
encephalopathy (BASE) MAY BE RELATED. A mutation had been identified in the


3:30 Transmission of the Italian Atypical BSE (BASE) in Humanized Mouse

Models Qingzhong Kong, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Pathology, Case Western Reserve

Bovine Amyloid Spongiform Encephalopathy (BASE) is an atypical BSE strain
discovered recently in Italy, and similar or different atypical BSE cases
were also reported in other countries. The infectivity and phenotypes of
these atypical BSE strains in humans are unknown. In collaboration with
Pierluigi Gambetti, as well as Maria Caramelli and her co-workers, we have
inoculated transgenic mice expressing human prion protein with brain
homogenates from BASE or BSE infected cattle. Our data shows that about half
of the BASE-inoculated mice became infected with an average incubation time
of about 19 months; in contrast, none of the BSE-inoculated mice appear to
be infected after more than 2 years.

***These results indicate that BASE is transmissible to humans and suggest that BASE is more virulent than
classical BSE in humans.***

6:30 Close of Day One

1997 TO 2006. SPORADIC CJD CASES TRIPLED, with phenotype
of 'UNKNOWN' strain growing. ...

There is a growing number of human CJD cases, and they were presented last
week in San Francisco by Luigi Gambatti(?) from his CJD surveillance

He estimates that it may be up to 14 or 15 persons which display selectively
SPRPSC and practically no detected RPRPSC proteins.

Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Singeltary, Sr et al. JAMA.2001; 285: 733-734.





MARCH 26, 2003

RE-Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob

disease in the United States

Email Terry S. Singeltary:

I lost my mother to hvCJD (Heidenhain Variant CJD). I would like to

comment on the CDC's attempts to monitor the occurrence of emerging

forms of CJD. Asante, Collinge et al [1] have reported that BSE

transmission to the 129-methionine genotype can lead to an alternate

phenotype that is indistinguishable from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest

sporadic CJD. However, CJD and all human TSEs are not reportable

nationally. CJD and all human TSEs must be made reportable in every

state and internationally. I hope that the CDC does not continue to

expect us to still believe that the 85%+ of all CJD cases which are

sporadic are all spontaneous, without route/source. We have many TSEs in

the USA in both animal and man. CWD in deer/elk is spreading rapidly and

CWD does transmit to mink, ferret, cattle, and squirrel monkey by

intracerebral inoculation. With the known incubation periods in other

TSEs, oral transmission studies of CWD may take much longer. Every

victim/family of CJD/TSEs should be asked about route and source of this

agent. To prolong this will only spread the agent and needlessly expose

others. In light of the findings of Asante and Collinge et al, there

should be drastic measures to safeguard the medical and surgical arena

from sporadic CJDs and all human TSEs. I only ponder how many sporadic

CJDs in the USA are type 2 PrPSc?

Hardcover, 304 pages plus photos and illustrations. ISBN 0-387-95508-9

June 2003

BY Philip Yam


Answering critics like Terry Singeltary, who feels that the U.S. under-
counts CJD, Schonberger conceded that the current surveillance system
has errors but stated that most of the errors will be confined to the older

Copyright © 2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Tracking spongiform encephalopathies in North America

Xavier Bosch

Available online 29 July 2003.

Volume 3, Issue 8, August 2003, Page 463

“My name is Terry S Singeltary Sr, and I live in Bacliff, Texas. I lost my
mom to hvCJD (Heidenhain variant CJD)
and have been searching for answers ever since. What I have found is that we
have not been told the truth. CWD
in deer and elk is a small portion of a much bigger problem.”

see history of cjd questionnaire


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