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From: TSS ()
Subject: USDA CONFIRMS BSE Tests on U.S. Cows Found Identical to Atypical Cases in France
Date: June 6, 2006 at 7:22 am PST

BSE Tests on U.S. Cows Found Identical to Atypical Cases in France 06/05/06 07:55


OMAHA (DTN) -- A USDA official confirmed the positive BSE tests in two U.S.-born cattle were indeed an "atypical" type of the disease.

A USDA spokesman acknowledged Friday positive BSE tests from two domestic-born cattle were from a rare strain of the disease found in a small number of European cases.

BSE, scientifically known as bovine spongiform encephalopathy and commonly known as mad cow disease, is a degenerative, fatal disease affecting the central nervous system of adult cattle.

USDA officials have declined in the past to provide such details, but released information Friday after a French researcher revealed earlier this week that the cases in Texas last year and Alabama last spring were identical to "atypical" cases of BSE found in France.

Scientists from around the world are trying to quantify the significance of these rare cases. They also want to know if these cases may be sporadic.

In an e-mail, a USDA spokesman said the cases raise "many unanswered questions about these unusual findings, and additional research is needed to help characterize the significance -- or lack of significance -- of any of these findings."

The USDA spokesperson said nothing in the test results of the two cattle justifies any changes in surveillance, disease control or public-health measures already being taken in the U.S.

http://www.news.farmpage.com/index.cfm?show=4&id=16987

Cattle disease might be unknown strain of BSE
05/06/2006 09:00:00
Farmers Weekly
Scientists across Europe and the United States are following the emergence of a new Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) in cattle that could be a new strain of BSE.

Speaking last weekend at an international conference on prion diseases in domestic livestock (such as BSE in cows and scrapie in sheep and goats) scientists from France and Italy described how the disease had been detected in a small number of cattle ranging from five to 15 years old.

The strain differs from BSE in that it has a longer incubation time and is consequently being found in older cattle.

The new strain also demonstrates different characteristics from BSE in laboratory tests and was originally detected through active surveillance of live animals rather than during inspection of a suspect fallen animal.

Marion Simmons of the Veterinary Laboratory Agency at Weybridge urged caution saying there are not yet sufficient supporting data to suggest that the disease is a new strain of BSE.

http://www.fwi.co.uk/Articles/2006/06/05/95055/Cattle+disease+might+be+unknown+strain+of+BSE.html

BASE in cattle in Italy of Identification of a second bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy: Molecular similarities with

sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease


http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/0305777101v1

Singeltary et al

http://www.microbes.info/forums/index.php?act=Attach&type=post&id=13

##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #####################

I thought some might be interested in this ;


Research Project: Study of Atypical Bse

Location: Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock

Project Number: 3625-32000-073-07
Project Type: Specific C/A

Start Date: Sep 15, 2004
End Date: Sep 14, 2007

Objective:
The objective of this cooperative research project with Dr. Maria Caramelli
from the Italian BSE Reference Laboratory in Turin, Italy, is to conduct
comparative studies with the U.S. bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
isolate and the atypical BSE isolates identified in Italy. The studies will
cover the following areas: 1. Evaluation of present diagnostics tools used
in the U.S. for the detection of atypical BSE cases. 2. Molecular comparison
of the U.S. BSE isolate and other typical BSE isolates with atypical BSE
cases. 3. Studies on transmissibility and tissue distribution of atypical
BSE isolates in cattle and other species.

Approach:
This project will be done as a Specific Cooperative Agreement with the
Italian BSE Reference Laboratory, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del
Piemonte, in Turin, Italy. It is essential for the U.S. BSE surveillance
program to analyze the effectiveness of the U.S diagnostic tools for
detection of atypical cases of BSE. Molecular comparisons of the U.S. BSE
isolate with atypical BSE isolates will provide further characterization of
the U.S. BSE isolate. Transmission studies are already underway using brain
homogenates from atypical BSE cases into mice, cattle and sheep. It will be
critical to see whether the atypical BSE isolates behave similarly to
typical BSE isolates in terms of transmissibility and disease pathogenesis.
If transmission occurs, tissue distribution comparisons will be made between
cattle infected with the atypical BSE isolate and the U.S. BSE isolate.
Differences in tissue distribution could require new regulations regarding
specific risk material (SRM) removal.


http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/projects/projects.htm?ACCN_NO=408490

Research Project: Study of Atypical Bse

Location: Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock

2005 Annual Report

This report serves to document research conducted under a specific
cooperative agreement between ARS and the Italian Reference Centre for
Animal TSE (CEA) at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale, Turin, Italy.
Additional details of research can be found in then report for the parent
project 3625-32000-073-00D, Transmission, Differentiation, and Pathobiology
of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies. The aim of the cooperative
research project conducted by the CEA and ARS is to compare the U.S. bovine
spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) isolate and the bovine amyloidotic
spongiform encephalopathy isolates (BASE) identified in Italy. The first
objective was to determine whether diagnostic methods routinely used by USDA
are able to identify the Italian BASE cases. For this purpose, CEA received
the immunohistochemistry (IHC) protocol developed by APHIS-USDA. The IHC
protocol was reproduced and standardized in the CEA laboratory and will be
applied to the Italian BSE and BASE cases. Furthermore, fixed brainstem
sections and frozen brainstem material from Italian BSE and BASE cases will
be sent to ARS for analysis using USDA IHC and Western blot (WB) methods.
These studies will enable us to determine whether the present diagnostic
tools (IHC and WB) employed at the USDA will be able to detect the Italian
BASE cases and also enable us to compare Italian BSE and BASE with the U.S.
BSE cases.


http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/projects/projects.htm?ACCN_NO=408490&showpa
rs=true&fy=2005


Research Project: Transmission, Differentiation, and Pathobiology of
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies

Location: Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock

Title: Where We've Been and Where We're Going with Bse Testing in the United
States

Authors
item Hall, Mark - NVSL-APHIS-USDA
item Richt, Juergen
item Davis, Arthur - NVSL-APHIS-USDA
item Levings, Randall - NVSL-APHIS-USDA

Submitted to: American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians
Publication Type: Abstract
Publication Acceptance Date: September 1, 2005
Publication Date: November 3, 2005
Citation: Hall, M.S., Richt, J.A., Davis, A.J., Levings, R.L. 2005. Where
We've Been and Where We're Going with Bse Testing in the United States
[abstract]. 48th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Veterinary
Laboratory Diagnosticians. P. 20.

Technical Abstract: A review of the laboratory aspects of the United States
Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)
Surveillance Program from its beginning to the present day will be provided.
Validated diagnostic tests for BSE require brain tissue. There are no ante
mortem (blood/serum) tests for BSE available at present. From a historical
perspective, diagnostic tests for BSE continue to evolve. The original
diagnostic test method was histopathology in which sections of brain were
examined under a microscope, and the classical vacuoles and spongiform
change in specific areas of the brain would allow a diagnosis to be made.
This method was accurate but only allowed a diagnosis to be made relatively
late in the course of the disease. In the mid-1990s, immunohistochemistry
(IHC) and Western blotting were developed which allow the detection of the
abnormal form of the prion protein (PrPSc) and a diagnosis could be made
prior to the development of spongiform changes and clinical signs. In the
past decade, so-called "rapid tests" have been introduced commercially for
BSE. Five commercial tests are currently licensed/permitted in the United
States for BSE. These licensed tests include the Prionics Western blot,
Prionics ELISA, Enfer/Abbott ELISA, IDEXX ELISA, and the BioRad ELISA. This
presentation will discuss various attributes of the validated test methods
available today. Both IHC and Western blot are considered confirmatory tests
for BSE by the World Organisation of Animal Health (OIE). IHC provides for a
specific immunological detection of PrPSc and enables the specific
anatomical location to be determined. Western blot provides both
immunological detection of PrPSc as well as specific molecular weight
characterizations; certain Western blot procedures can be extremely
sensitive due to various concentration procedures before analysis of the
sample. The OIE recommended Western blot and IHC methods for confirmatory
diagnosis of BSE used by USDA and the Veterinary Laboratories Agency in
Weybridge, England, will be discussed. The overall enhanced testing plan
that has been used for the past 18 months will be described including
changes that have occurred during this time. The USDA's BSE enhanced
surveillance plan has been a very successful national surveillance testing
program that has been a shared effort between state veterinary diagnostic
laboratories as part of the National Animal Health Laboratory Network and
the National Veterinary Services Laboratories.

http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=18
3829

NEW STRAIN OF TSE USA CATTLE OR JUST INCOMPETENCE IN TESTING???


http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/Comments/03-025IFA/03-025IFA-2.pdf

Greetings again,


I was going over the data from the 1st documented BSE/TSE cow
in the USA and find it disturbing USDA thought it important enough
to use WB to verify there immunohistochemistry test then ;


TSEs Touch Off
ARS Research


A year ago this month, a group of ARS
scientists and technicians gave up their Christmas time off and even
delayed family vacations to provide characterization of the first case
of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-commonly called mad cow
disease-to be found in the United States.

On December 23, 2003, a Canadian cow shipped to slaughter from a farm in
Mabton, Washington, had come up presumptively positive for BSE in
testing by USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS),
which has diagnostic responsibility and regulatory oversight for BSE
issues. APHIS had already used the "gold standard" diagnostic
immunohistochemistry test, which was originally developed by ARS. But
for the first U.S. case of BSE, APHIS wanted additional scientific
information that could be provided by the Western blot test.

So APHIS put in a high-priority call to veterinary medical officer
Juergen Richt and his colleagues at the Virus and Prion Diseases of
Livestock Laboratory, which is part of ARS's National Animal Disease
Center (NADC) in Ames, Iowa.

"We had experience with the Western blot test and we had all the
reagents on hand," explains Richt. "So we put our holiday plans on hold
and got everything ready so that APHIS would have verification of the
results from the immunohistochemistry test." ........... snip

full text;

http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/dec04/tse1204.htm
http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/dec04/

HOWEVER, on the 2nd suspect Texas mad cow, not the stumbling and staggering
one they refused to test at all here ;


FDA's investigation showed that the animal in question had already been
rendered into "meat and bone meal" (a type of protein animal feed). Over the
weekend FDA was able to track down all the implicated material. That
material is being held by the firm, which is cooperating fully with FDA.

Cattle with central nervous system symptoms are of particular interest
because cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy or BSE, also known as
"mad cow disease," can exhibit such symptoms. In this case, there is no way
now to test for BSE. But even if the cow had BSE, FDA's animal feed rule
would prohibit the feeding of its rendered protein to other ruminant animals
(e.g., cows, goats, sheep, bison). ...


http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/news/2004/NEW01061.html


BUT, i am speaking of the suspect Texas mad cow where tissue samples sat on
the shelf for 7+ months and then it took an act of Congress, thanks to the
Honorable Phyllis Fong of the OIG, and an end around Johanns, Dehaven et al
to get those samples to Weybridge for confirmation, where it was finally
confirmed ;


The animal was selected for testing because, as a non-ambulatory animal, it
was considered to be at higher risk for BSE. An initial screening test on
the animal in November 2004 was inconclusive, triggering USDA to conduct the
internationally accepted confirmatory IHC tests. Those test results were
negative. Earlier this month, USDA's Office of the Inspector General
recommended further testing of the seven-month-old sample using another
internationally recognized confirmatory test, the Western blot. Unlike the
IHC, the Western blot was reactive, prompting USDA to send samples from the
animal to the Weybridge laboratory for further analysis. ...

Last Modified: 06/24/2005


http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/!ut/p/_s.7_0_A/7_0_1OB/.cmd/ad/.ar/sa.retriev
econtent/.c/6_2_1UH/.ce/7_2_5JM/.p/5_2_4TQ/.d/1/_th/J_2_9D/_s.7_0_A/7_0_1OB?
PC_7_2_5JM_contentid=2005%2F06%2F0232.xml&PC_7_2_5JM_navtype=RT&PC_7_2_5JM_p
arentnav=LATEST_RELEASES&PC_7_2_5JM_navid=NEWS_RELEASE#7_2_5JM

EVEN more disturbing is the fact that Dr. Detwiler, former top TSE expert at
USDA, tried to tell this Administration this in 2003, and they refused to
listen, this just before she left USDA ;


USDA 2003

We have to be careful that we don't get so set in the way we do things that
we forget to look for different emerging variations of disease. We've gotten
away from collecting the whole brain in our systems. We're using the brain
stem and we're looking in only one area. In Norway, they were doing a
project and looking at cases of Scrapie, and they found this where they did
not find lesions or PRP in the area of the obex. They found it in the
cerebellum and the cerebrum. It's a good lesson for us. Ames had to go
back and change the procedure for looking at Scrapie samples. In the USDA,
we had routinely looked at all the sections of the brain, and then we got
away from it. They've recently gone back.
Dr. Keller: Tissues are routinely tested, based on which tissue provides an
'official' test result as recognized by APHIS
.

Dr. Detwiler: That's on the slaughter. But on the clinical cases, aren't
they still asking for the brain? But even on the slaughter, they're looking
only at the brainstem. We may be missing certain things if we confine
ourselves to one area.


snip.............


Dr. Detwiler: It seems a good idea, but I'm not aware of it.
Another important thing to get across to the public is that the negatives
do not guarantee absence of infectivity. The animal could be early in the
disease and the incubation period. Even sample collection is so important.
If you're not collecting the right area of the brain in sheep, or if
collecting lymphoreticular tissue, and you don't get a good biopsy, you
could miss the area with the PRP in it and come up with a negative test.
There's a new, unusual form of Scrapie that's been detected in Norway. We
have to be careful that we don't get so set in the way we do things that we
forget to look for different emerging variations of disease. We've gotten
away from collecting the whole brain in our systems. We're using the brain
stem and we're looking in only one area. In Norway, they were doing a
project and looking at cases of Scrapie, and they found this where they did
not find lesions or PRP in the area of the obex. They found it in the
cerebellum and the cerebrum. It's a good lesson for us. Ames had to go
back and change the procedure for looking at Scrapie samples. In the USDA,
we had routinely looked at all the sections of the brain, and then we got
away from it. They've recently gone back.

Dr. Keller: Tissues are routinely tested, based on which tissue provides an
'official' test result as recognized by APHIS
.

Dr. Detwiler: That's on the slaughter. But on the clinical cases, aren't
they still asking for the brain? But even on the slaughter, they're looking
only at the brainstem. We may be missing certain things if we confine
ourselves to one area.


snip...


FULL TEXT;


Completely Edited Version
PRION ROUNDTABLE


Accomplished this day, Wednesday, December 11, 2003, Denver, Colorado
====================================================

Taking a Quality Sample

Too Little Tissue Submitted Too Little Tissue Submitted

NOTE: The samples in these photos are suitable for ELISA testing and if
negative by ELISA there would not be a problem, but if the results were
inconclusive then it would be difficult to process for IHC and additional
testing.

August 24, 2004 Taking a Quality Sample: E4

snip...end

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/nvsl/BSE/Manual/appendixe.pdf

Getting a Sample of Sufficient Quality
Unless the sample is of sufficient quality, it will be unusable and
not count towards the survey. Please see Appendix E for
guidance on collecting a quality sample. If the sample is not of
sufficient quality, STOP: DO NOT TAKE THE SAMPLE. This
does NOT apply to samples taken from:

. animals that are highly suspicious for BSE or that
involve an FAD investigation

. animals that were condemned in an antemortem
inspection BSE sampling using a spoon

Step 1

. Place head upright

- On head rack or barrel
- On table edge
- On the ground facing down if no other option

snip...

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/nvsl/BSE/procedure_manual.pdf

NOW, if we go back further, is this really any surprise ;


>> Differences in tissue distribution could require new regulations
>> regarding specific risk material (SRM) removal.

snip...end

full text ;

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11b/tab01.pdf


3.57 The experiment which might have determined whether BSE and scrapie were
caused by the same agent (ie, the feeding of natural scrapie to cattle) was
never undertaken in the UK. It was, however, performed in the USA in 1979,
when it was shown that cattle inoculated with the scrapie agent endemic in
the flock of Suffolk sheep at the United States Department of Agriculture in
Mission, Texas, developed a TSE quite unlike BSE. 32 The findings of the
initial transmission, though not of the clinical or neurohistological
examination, were communicated in October 1988 to Dr Watson, Director of the
CVL, following a visit by Dr Wrathall, one of the project leaders in the
Pathology Department of the CVL, to the United States Department of
Agriculture. 33 The results were not published at this point, since the
attempted transmission to mice from the experimental cow brain had been
inconclusive. The results of the clinical and histological differences
between scrapie-affected sheep and cattle were published in 1995. Similar
studies in which cattle were inoculated intracerebrally with scrapie inocula
derived from a number of scrapie-affected sheep of different breeds and from
different States, were carried out at the US National Animal Disease Centre.
34 The results, published in 1994, showed that this source of scrapie agent,
though pathogenic for cattle, did not produce the same clinical signs of
brain lesions characteristic of BSE.

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/report/volume2/chaptea3.htm#820543

The findings of the initial transmission, though not of the clinical or
neurohistological examination, were communicated in October 1988 to Dr
Watson, Director of the CVL, following a visit by Dr Wrathall, one of the
project leaders in the Pathology Department of the CVL, to the United States
Department of Agriculture. 33


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1988/10/00001001.pdf


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/report/volume2/chaptea3.htm#820546

The results were not published at this point, since the attempted
transmission to mice from the experimental cow brain had been inconclusive.
The results of the clinical and histological differences between
scrapie-affected sheep and cattle were published in 1995. Similar studies in
which cattle were inoculated intracerebrally with scrapie inocula derived
from a number of scrapie-affected sheep of different breeds and from
different States, were carried out at the US National Animal Disease Centre.
34 The
results, published in 1994, showed that this source of scrapie agent, though
pathogenic for cattle, did not produce the same clinical signs of brain
lesions characteristic of BSE.

3.58 There are several possible reasons why the experiment was not performed
in the UK. It had been recommended by Sir Richard Southwood (Chairman of the
Working Party on Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy) in his letter to the
Permanent Secretary of MAFF, Mr (now Sir) Derek Andrews, on 21 June 1988, 35
though it was not specifically recommended in the Working Party Report or
indeed in the Tyrrell Committee Report (details of the Southwood Working
Party and the Tyrell Committee can be found in vol. 4: The Southwood Working
Party, 1988-89 and vol. 11: Scientists after Southwood respectively). The
direct inoculation of scrapie into calves was given low priority, because of
its high cost and because it was known that it had already taken place in
the USA. 36 It was also felt that the results of such an experiment would be
hard to interpret. While a negative result would be informative, a positive
result would need to demonstrate that when scrapie was transmitted to
cattle, the disease which developed in cattle was the same as BSE. 37 Given
the large number of strains of scrapie and the possibility that BSE was one
of them, it would be necessary to transmit every scrapie strain to cattle
separately, to test the hypothesis properly. Such an experiment would be
expensive. Secondly, as measures to control the epidemic took hold, the need
for the experiment from the policy viewpoint was not considered so urgent.
It was felt that the results would be mainly of academic interest. 38


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/report/volume2/chaptea3.htm#820550


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/report/volume2/chaptea3.htm

UKBSEnvCJD only theory Singeltary et al 2006


http://www.microbes.info/forums/index.php?act=Attach&type=post&id=13


http://www.microbes.info/forums/index.php?showtopic=306

CJD WATCH

http://www.fortunecity.com/healthclub/cpr/349/part1cjd.htm

CJD WATCH MESSAGE BOARD

http://disc.server.com/Indices/167318.html


Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
P.O. Box 42
Bacliff, Texas USA 77518

----- Original Message -----
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
To:
Sent: Thursday, June 01, 2006 2:33 PM
Subject: BSE, BOVINE - USA: ATYPICAL STRAIN


##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
#####################

BSE, BOVINE - USA: ATYPICAL STRAIN
**********************************
A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail, a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases


Date: 31 May 2006
From: Terry S. Singletary and Mary Marshall

Source: Rapid City Journal [edited]

The 2 cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy found in U.S. cattle
over the past year came from a rare strain of BSE found largely in
Europe that scientists are only beginning to identify, according to
research by a French scientist.

Researchers in France and Italy who presented their work at an
international conference in London reported 2 rare strains of bovine
spongiform encephalopathy that are harder to detect and affect mainly
older cattle.

Thierry Baron of the French Food Safety Agency presented research
indicating that a 12-year-old Texas cow testing positive for BSE in
June 2005, and the 10-year-old Alabama cow that tested positive in
March [2006?], showed identical testing patterns to a small number of
BSE cases in France, Sweden and Poland.

Animal scientists are calling such strains "atypical" BSE, which is
different from the "typical" BSE caused by cattle eating feed with
ruminant offal contaminated with a BSE protein.

They don't know whether the atypical strains are caused by something
else or simply appear spontaneously in older, susceptible cattle.

Art Davis, a U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) scientist for the
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) at the National
Veterinary Services Laboratory in Ames, Iowa, said in his
presentation Sunday at the London conference that the Texas and
Alabama test results showed completely different prion patterns than
the Washington state case discovered in December 2003.

"The classical lesions were not there," Davis said of the cases. The
Washington state cow originated in Alberta, Canada, near where
several other BSE cases have been found.

The "typical" BSE strain caused a mad cow disease epidemic in Great
Britain beginning in the mid-1980s that killed 184 000 cattle and
more than 100 people who contracted a human form of the disease
caused by eating contaminated beef products.

The scientific evidence shows that in almost all cattle cases, the
fatal neurological disorder was contracted through contaminated meat
and bone meal fed to the cow, typically at a young age.

However, scientists finding atypical cases of BSE are beginning to
question if there has been a change in the abnormal protein that
causes BSE or if cattle might be susceptible to a sporadic BSE
affecting older cattle.

Danny Matthews, head of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies at
England's Veterinary Laboratories Agency, said recent research on
atypical cases of BSE raises questions over whether older cattle can
sporadically get the disease or if there are more strains of BSE than
previously understood. Scientists might also be facing something new,
such as "son of BSE," he said.

"We don't fully understand what atypical BSE means," Matthews said.
"Is it spontaneous or another source causing it? Time will tell."

Although the test patterns in the U.S. cases and atypical cases in
Europe closely matched, Baron said there were no known links among
any of the positive animals. The French Food Safety Agency sent a
researcher to the United States to study the positive Texas case and
compare its results to known cases in France that did not match the
typical BSE positive tests.

"You could place them side-by-side and not tell the difference," Baron said.

Baron also raised the prospect that the disease could be sporadic in
at least a small number of older cattle. He said, however, such a
conclusion would be hard to determine because of the small number of
cattle with this atypical strain globally.

Dr. Sam Holland, South Dakota's state veterinarian, said there are
many strains of BSE and varying degrees of infectiousness of the
agent.

"What if the scenario is there is an atypical prion out there that is
much less infective, has a longer incubation period and has not been
recognized as part of the Great Britain BSE experience identified in
1985 and '86?" Holland said. "There could be others out there that we
haven't recognized yet."

He said it is possible the atypical strains are not caused by
contaminated feed and that it still makes sense to continue the ban
on ruminant offal in cattle feed to prevent the spread of typical BSE
and eventually to eliminate that disease.

"Based on what we know about BSE, it makes good sense to -- number
one -- keep some surveillance in place; number 2, watch what we
import and restrict shipments and movements from places that have had
those syndromes; and, number 3, with what we know about BSE, it seems
to be very prudent to keep our ruminant offal ban in place," Holland
said.

"At least for typical BSE's, it seems to be very effective. It's
probably reasonable to continue the ruminant offal ban even after the
last typical BSE case has been eliminated."

Editor's note: DTN, a private company based in Omaha, Neb., provides
information to agriculture, energy trading markets and other
weather-sensitive industries. The Rapid City Journal received a copy
of DTN's story and expanded on it.

[Byline: Chris Clayton]

--
Terry S. Singletary
and
Mary Marshall


[An atypical form has been found in sheep with scrapie. Other
countries have indicated an atypical form of BSE. It seems logical
that the US would have an a atypical form as well. The case might
even be made that new variant CJD is an atypical form of CJD. Clearly
there is more to the TSE diseases than we fully comprehend. - Mod.TG]

[see also:
2005
----
Scrapie, atypical, ovine - Falkland Islands 20051120.3371
2004
----
Scrapie, atypical, sheep - UK and Ireland 20041210.3274
Scrapie, atypical, sheep - UK (02) 20040409.0965
Scrapie, atypical, sheep - UK20040408.0952
BSE, atypical - France: OIE 20040201.0391
Scrapie, atypical, sheep - France: OIE 20040201.0390
BSE - France: distinct molecular phenotypes 20040107.0076
2003
----
Scrapie - Norway: new phenotype 20031117.2857
BSE - Japan (08): 9th case, lab findings 20031115.2838
BSE, atypical case - Italy: OIE 20031022.2649
BSE - Italy: atypical, suspected 20031012.2576
BSE - Japan (06): atypical 20031009.2547
BSE - Japan (05): atypical 20031008.2526
BSE - Japan (04): atypical 20031007.2511
2002
----
BSE? Sheep - USA (Vermont) 20020412.3937
2000
----
BSE? sheep - USA (Vermont) (06) 20000724.1223
BSE? sheep - USA (Vermont) 20000717.1184
1996
----
CJD sporadic vs variant differences 19960526.0990]
...............tg/pg/lm


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