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From: TSS ()
Subject: Re: U.S. FAILURE TO PROVE MAD COW AGE COULD HALT IMPORTS
Date: April 5, 2006 at 8:16 am PST

In Reply to: U.S. FAILURE TO PROVE MAD COW AGE COULD HALT IMPORTS posted by TSS on April 5, 2006 at 6:33 am:

IN reply to Senator Cornyn,


What’s their Beef?
by Senator John Cornyn

http://news.google.com/news/url?sa=t&ct=us/2-0&fp=44335b9938c0729c&ei=veQzRNLAGcS4aqLxxaAJ&url=http%3A//www.easttexasreview.com/story.htm%3FStoryID%3D3400&cid=0


IN reply to Senator Cornyn, i would kindly like to comment on 'What's their Beef?



If the Japanese continue to refuse to distinguish between sound science and an isolated, human error, then so be it. We will take action again in Congress. That said, I can’t imagine the Japanese government would prefer tough American sanctions to tender Texas beef. ...............................END


WHAT Senator Cornyn must realize is, the people of Japan are not stupid, and you cannot force feed them USA TSE tainted beef and the 'junk science' USDA et al have used time and time again. Simple as that. the USDA et al has failed us terribly on the BSE/TSE surveillance program and eradication of this agent. I know, i have followed this very very closely for 8+ years, since the death of my mother to the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease. ...


Subject: U.S. FAILURE TO PROVE MAD COW AGE COULD HALT IMPORTS
Date: April 5, 2006 at 6:33 am PST
US Holds Infomation on Mad Cow Case


http://times.hankooki.com/lpage/biz/200604/kt2006040519470011910.htm


http://english.chosun.com/w21data/html/news/200604/200604050029.html



when the oie jumped in bed with gw et al at usda on this mrr policy, and threw 30 years of attempted BSE eradication down the tube for trade, and it was working in the countries that had a real 'enhanced' surveillance system and one that adhered to the feed ban and other stringent regulations, i said then the oie should 'hang up there jock strap', that they were nothing more than a International Brokerage firm for the legal trading of all strains of TSE globally ;


THE OIE has now shown they are nothing more than a National Trading Brokerage for all strains of animal TSE.
AS i said before, OIE should hang up there jock strap now, since it appears they will buckle every time a country makes some political hay about trade protocol, commodities and futures. IF they are not going to be science based, they should do everyone a favor and dissolve there organization. With Science like this, Japan would be fully justified in declining to be a member. ...


snip...

SO, the already terribly flawwed OIE BSE surveillance system is too burdensome for trade.
Aint that just too bad. SO, they decide to make it even weaker. The damn thing never worked
anyway. ALL one has to do is look at the documented BSE Countries that went by it. Did them
a lot of good.

TO think that a sample survey of 400 or so cattle in a population of 100 million, to think this will find anything, especially after seeing how many TSE tests it took Italy and other Countries to find 1 case of BSE (1 million rapid TSE test in less than 2 years, to find 102 BSE cases), should be proof enough to make drastic changes of this system. the OIE criteria for BSE Country classification and it's interpretation is very problematic. a text that is suppose to give guidelines, but is not understandable, cannot be considered satisfactory...


http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dockets/03n0312/03N-0312_emc-000001.txt


2 things happened, and there is no in-between. usda et al have spouting off for years, well since 8/4/97, triple firewalls in place, feed ban working, no mad cows. ALL WRONG! then you had the token purina Gonzales give away, where fda said it was o.k. to feed 5.5 grams of tainted TSE product to cattle, and they will be O.K. WRONG AGAIN! and then you had the infamous stumbling and staggering Texas cow that went to render without any test what so ever. THEN you had the other Texas mad cow that sat on the shelf for 7+ months. that cow would have never been positive if not for the Honorable Phyllis Fong of the OIG. Dehaven and Johanns would have kept that mad cow on ice till hell froze over. and you think that protocol is o.k. ??? not to mention the 9,200 other cows in that fluke of a enhanced 2004 usda june cover-up. one of the top prion gods in the world, says ;


These two cases (the latest was detected in an Alabama cow) present a picture of the disease having been here for 10 years or so, since it is thought that cows usually contract the disease from contaminated feed they consume as calves. The concern is that humans can contract a fatal, incurable, brain-wasting illness from consuming beef products contaminated with the mad cow pathogen.

"The fact the Texas cow showed up fairly clearly implied the existence of other undetected cases," Dr. Paul Brown, former medical director of the National Institutes of Health's Laboratory for Central Nervous System Studies and an expert on mad cow-like diseases, told United Press International. "The question was, 'How many?' and we still can't answer that."

Brown, who is preparing a scientific paper based on the latest two mad cow cases to estimate the maximum number of infected cows that occurred in the United States, said he has "absolutely no confidence in USDA tests before one year ago" because of the agency's reluctance to retest the Texas cow that initially tested positive.

USDA officials finally retested the cow and confirmed it was infected seven months later, but only at the insistence of the agency's inspector general. ........


CDC - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt ...
Dr. Paul Brown is Senior Research Scientist in the Laboratory of Central Nervous System ... Address for correspondence: Paul Brown, Building 36, Room 4A-05, ...
www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol7no1/brown.htm


CDC - Afterthoughts about Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and ...
Afterthoughts about Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Paul Brown Senior Investigator, National Institutes of Health, ...
www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol7no3_supp/brown.htm

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dockets/02n0273/02n-0273-c000490-vol40.pdf

like i said, no in-between, either usda et al triple fire walls, feed ban of 8/4/97, no mad cow rhetoric was just that i.e. cover-up, or they all fell out of the Stupid tree and hit every branch on the way down a long time ago. ...


THE USDA BSE TESTING PROTOCOL WAS TERRIBLY FLAWWED FROM THE BEGINNING, AND THAT is the way it was suppose to be;


Dr. Detwiler, former top vet at the USDA and TSE aka mad cow expert tried to tell the bush administration this in more ways than one at a BSE ROUNTABLE event on Wednesday, December 11, 2003, in Denver, Colorado. shortly after this Dr. Detwiler was put out to pasture along with Dr. Miller and a few others that knew what was going on and spoke out about it;


USDA 2003

We have to be careful that we don't get so set in the way we do things that
we
forget to look for different emerging variations of disease. We've gotten
away from collecting the whole brain in our systems. We're using the brain
stem and we're looking in only one area. In Norway, they were doing a
project and looking at cases of Scrapie, and they found this where they did
not find lesions or PRP in the area of the obex. They found it in the
cerebellum and the cerebrum. It's a good lesson for us. Ames had to go
back and change the procedure for looking at Scrapie samples. In the USDA,
we had routinely looked at all the sections of the brain, and then we got
away from it. They've recently gone back.
Dr. Keller: Tissues are routinely tested, based on which tissue provides an
'official' test result as recognized by APHIS
.

Dr. Detwiler: That's on the slaughter. But on the clinical cases, aren't
they still asking for the brain? But even on the slaughter, they're looking
only at the brainstem. We may be missing certain things if we confine
ourselves to one area.


snip.............


Dr. Detwiler: It seems a good idea, but I'm not aware of it.
Another important thing to get across to the public is that the negatives
do not guarantee absence of infectivity. The animal could be early in the
disease and the incubation period. Even sample collection is so important.
If you're not collecting the right area of the brain in sheep, or if
collecting lymphoreticular tissue, and you don't get a good biopsy, you
could miss the area with the PRP in it and come up with a negative test.
There's a new, unusual form of Scrapie that's been detected in Norway. We
have to be careful that we don't get so set in the way we do things that we
forget to look for different emerging variations of disease. We've gotten
away from collecting the whole brain in our systems. We're using the brain
stem and we're looking in only one area. In Norway, they were doing a
project and looking at cases of Scrapie, and they found this where they did
not find lesions or PRP in the area of the obex. They found it in the
cerebellum and the cerebrum. It's a good lesson for us. Ames had to go
back and change the procedure for looking at Scrapie samples. In the USDA,
we had routinely looked at all the sections of the brain, and then we got
away from it. They've recently gone back.

Dr. Keller: Tissues are routinely tested, based on which tissue provides an
'official' test result as recognized by APHIS
.

Dr. Detwiler: That's on the slaughter. But on the clinical cases, aren't
they still asking for the brain? But even on the slaughter, they're looking
only at the brainstem. We may be missing certain things if we confine
ourselves to one area.


snip...


Completely Edited Version
PRION ROUNDTABLE


Accomplished this day, Wednesday, December 11, 2003, Denver, Colorado


##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #####################

> i dont believe them. you can do test on the teeth to determine how old
they are, better than detention.
> where is the head??? show me the data, this is what others should be
asking. ...


HOW is it in the UK they can determine the age of a cow by blood test, but
here in the USA, we use a draconian pre-historic detention method $$$


Farmer flouted BSE laws over ageing cattle

Mar 31 2006


Chester Chronicle


BEEF cattle older than the two-and-a-half-year legal age limit entered the
food chain because a farmer put false dates of birth on their passports, a
court heard.

The farmer, 34-year-old Stephen Kenneth Bourne, ended up with a £10,000
court bill after he admitted applying false descriptions to a dozen animals
which were sold illegally contravening laws designed to combat 'Mad Cow'
disease .

He was paid £500 to £600 for some of the animals when, because of their age,
they were worthless, Mold Crown Court was told on Tuesday.

Bourne of Glan Deg Farm at Threapwood, Malpas, admitted 12 charges brought
by trading standards officials and was given a two-year conditional
discharge.

But he was ordered to pay £10,000 in costs at £500 a month.

The two-and-a-half-year age limit on animals being sold in the market was
introduced to protect the integrity of Britain's beef industry in Europe
following the BSE scare.


The judge, Mr Recorder Rhys Rowlands, said that public confidence in the
farming industry was crucial for the future of the business.


The judge said he took into account that the offences took place over a six
month period back in 2003 when he farmed in partnership with his father, who
was originally charged as well but who had since died.


Prosecuting barrister Julian Shaw said the case arose out of the failure of
Bourne and his father to keep any adequate records over the dates of birth
of cattle on the farm, the identity of dams, and there were no proper cattle
movement records.


'There is no way of knowing how many bovines over the 30-month age limit wer
e in fact introduced into the food chain,' he said.


The case came to a light after vet Gavin Morris became suspicious about an
animal said to be 25 months but which looked considerably older.


Blood specimens were taken of animals at the farm and Britain's leading
expert in the ageing of cattle by identification Prof Andrew Andrews was
drafted in.


Defending barrister John Wyn Williams said Bourne had inherited the system
from his father, but he had since ensured that proper computerised records
were kept and there would not be a repetition.


The defendant's late father, Kenneth Huxley Bourne, 65, who died in November
of last year, had during the investigation repaid the money he had received
from purchasers.


http://iccheshireonline.icnetwork.co.uk/0100news/chesterchronicle/tm_objecti
d=16886034%26method=full%26siteid=50020%26headline=farmer%2dflouted%2dbse%2d
laws%2dover%2dageing%2dcattle%2d-name_page.html


TSS

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From: TSS ()
Subject: Re: ALABAMA BSE UPDATE March 30, 2006 - Senate Passes Animal ID
Bill (BSE) and FDA says impossible to indentify feed source
Date: March 31, 2006 at 7:20 am PST

HOW is it in the UK they can determine the age of a cow by blood test, but
here in the USA, we use a draconian pre-historic detention method $$$


Farmer flouted BSE laws over ageing cattle

Mar 31 2006


Chester Chronicle


BEEF cattle older than the two-and-a-half-year legal age limit entered the
food chain because a farmer put false dates of birth on their passports, a
court heard.

The farmer, 34-year-old Stephen Kenneth Bourne, ended up with a £10,000
court bill after he admitted applying false descriptions to a dozen animals
which were sold illegally contravening laws designed to combat 'Mad Cow'
disease .

He was paid £500 to £600 for some of the animals when, because of their age,
they were worthless, Mold Crown Court was told on Tuesday.

Bourne of Glan Deg Farm at Threapwood, Malpas, admitted 12 charges brought
by trading standards officials and was given a two-year conditional
discharge.

But he was ordered to pay £10,000 in costs at £500 a month.

The two-and-a-half-year age limit on animals being sold in the market was
introduced to protect the integrity of Britain's beef industry in Europe
following the BSE scare.


The judge, Mr Recorder Rhys Rowlands, said that public confidence in the
farming industry was crucial for the future of the business.


The judge said he took into account that the offences took place over a six
month period back in 2003 when he farmed in partnership with his father, who
was originally charged as well but who had since died.


Prosecuting barrister Julian Shaw said the case arose out of the failure of
Bourne and his father to keep any adequate records over the dates of birth
of cattle on the farm, the identity of dams, and there were no proper cattle
movement records.


'There is no way of knowing how many bovines over the 30-month age limit
were in fact introduced into the food chain,' he said.


The case came to a light after vet Gavin Morris became suspicious about an
animal said to be 25 months but which looked considerably older.


Blood specimens were taken of animals at the farm and Britain's leading
expert in the ageing of cattle by identification Prof Andrew Andrews was
drafted in.


Defending barrister John Wyn Williams said Bourne had inherited the system
from his father, but he had since ensured that proper computerised records
were kept and there would not be a repetition.


The defendant's late father, Kenneth Huxley Bourne, 65, who died in November
of last year, had during the investigation repaid the money he had received
from purchasers.


http://iccheshireonline.icnetwork.co.uk/0100news/chesterchronicle/tm_objecti
d=16886034%26method=full%26siteid=50020%26headline=farmer%2dflouted%2dbse%2d
laws%2dover%2dageing%2dcattle%2d-name_page.html


TSS


----- Original Message -----
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
To:
Sent: Thursday, March 30, 2006 9:32 PM
Subject: ALABAMA BSE UPDATE March 30, 2006 - Senate Passes Animal ID Bill
(BSE) and FDA says impossible to indentify feed source


##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
#####################

March 30, 2006 - Senate Passes Animal ID Bill (BSE)
MONTGOMERY – Commissioner Ron Sparks and State Veterinarian Dr. Tony Frazier
with the Alabama Department of Agriculture and Industries (ADAI) and the
USDA have provided an update on their ongoing joint investigation of the cow
that died from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Alabama.

March 30, 2006 - Senate Passes Animal ID Bill (BSE)

Today, the Alabama State Senate passed HB 254 with a vote of 20-6. This bill
will provide for the confidentiality of information initially gathered by
the Alabama Department of Agriculture and Industries as the department
implements and maintains a database for Animal Identification in accord and
consistent with the United States Department of Agriculture's National
Animal Identification System. Premises ID Registration has been implemented
in the last year and Animal ID Registration is not far behind. The
information on premises and animals, gathered at the request of Commissioner
Sparks, is to protect the interest of public health, safety, and welfare.

“The Alabama Department of Agriculture & Industries’ system will comply with
any USDA policies and we will not implement an animal ID system that would
hurt Alabama farmers whether they raise 2 animals or 2,000 animals,” said
Sparks. “I truly appreciate what the legislature has done for the farmers
and consumers of Alabama.”

As of today, 14 locations and 44 movements of cattle have been examined with
39 of those being substantially completed. Additional investigations of
locations and herds will continue. This process is to eliminate herds from
the ongoing investigation.

A flow chart showing how the traceback process is progressing has been
posted on the Alabama Department of Agriculture & Industries website
www.agi.alabama.gov. As the chart illustrates, the investigation has
broadened to include many farms and stockyards. The farms are where the
index cow may have lived previously or where her immediate family members
may have lived. The stockyards are places where investigators have reviewed
records of transactions and conducted interviews. Each link is being
thoroughly examined and then, based on the information collected the link
will either continue on to another location or be closed.

Federal and state officials have stressed that it may not be possible to
trace the index cow to her herd of origin due to the primitive traceback
methods being used in the investigation. Eventually, leads in the case may
be exhausted despite their best efforts.

The next update from ADAI will be sent Monday, April 3rd.

http://www.agi.state.al.us/press_releases/march-30-2006---senate-passes-anim
al-id-bill-bse?pn=2

Alabama BSE Case Trace Investigation March 29, 2006 chart

http://www.agi.state.al.us/uploads/wU/tL/wUtLnjRP_GE4XN_SybLv6Q/External-BSE
-Chart.pdf

Epidemiology Updates

March 30, 2006
As of today, 14 locations and 44 movements of cattle have been examined with
39 of those being substantially completed. Additional investigations of
locations and herds will continue. A location includes stockyards or farms
where the index cow lived previously or where her immediate family members
may have lived. The movements include any arrivals or departures from those
locations.

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/newsroom/hot_issues/bse/bse_al_epi-update.shtml

FDA: US Won't Likely Find Source Of Latest BSE Infection

WASHINGTON (Dow Jones)--Government investigators looking into the latest
case of mad-cow disease in the U.S. won't likely be able to find the source
of the cow's infection, a Food and Drug Administration official said
Thursday.

Stephen Sundlof, director of FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine, told
reporters, "It's going to be nearly impossible to identify any particular
feed."

Mad-cow disease, or bovine spongiform encephalopathy, is believed to be
spread among cattle through feed containing infected cattle parts. The FDA
has prohibited bovine material from being included in cattle feed since
1997.

If FDA could find the producer of the tainted feed that infected the cow -
found on an Alabama farm earlier this month - it might be able to find how
widely the feed was distributed.

But U.S. Department of Agriculture officials believe the cow was at least 10
years old when she was euthanized by a local veterinarian on the Alabama
farm where she had resided for less than a year.

snip...full text;

http://www.cattlenetwork.com/content.asp?contentid=26643

> But U.S. Department of Agriculture officials believe the cow was at least
10 years old


yea, and they believed no mad cows were not in the USA either. wrong! and i
can list many other things they believed about human and animal TSE that
they were wrong about, but i have listed them here before.

i dont believe them. you can do test on the teeth to determine how old they
are, better than detention. where is the head??? show me the data, this is
what others should be asking. ...

TSS

#################### https://lists.aegee.org/bse-l.html
####################

#################### https://lists.aegee.org/bse-l.html ####################



##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #####################

Epidemiology Updates

March 29, 2006
As of today, 14 locations and 44 movements of cattle have been examined with
34 of those being substantially completed. Additional investigations of
locations and herds will continue. A location includes stockyards or farms
where the index cow lived previously or where her immediate family members
may have lived. The movements include any arrivals or departures from those
locations.

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/newsroom/hot_issues/bse/bse_al_epi-update.shtml

THE SILENCE IS DEAFENING...TSS

----- Original Message -----
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
To:
Sent: Wednesday, March 29, 2006 9:45 AM
Subject: Re: BSE UPDATE ALABAMA March 24, 2006


> ##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
#####################
>
> Epidemiology Updates
>
> March 28, 2006
> As of today, 14 locations and 44 movements of cattle have been examined
with
> 32 of those being substantially completed. Additional investigations of
> locations and herds will continue. A location includes stockyards or farms
> where the index cow lived previously or where her immediate family members
> may have lived. The movements include any arrivals or departures from
those
> locations.
>
>
> http://www.aphis.usda.gov/newsroom/hot_issues/bse/bse_al_epi-update.shtml
>
>
> TSS
>
>
> ----- Original Message -----
> From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
> To:
> Sent: Tuesday, March 28, 2006 8:45 AM
> Subject: Re: BSE UPDATE ALABAMA March 24, 2006
>
>
> > ##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
> #####################
> >
> > Epidemiology Updates
> >
> > March 27, 2006
> > As of today, 14 locations and 40 movements of cattle have been examined
> with
> > 32 of those being substantially completed. Additional investigations of
> > locations and herds will continue. A location includes stockyards or
farms
> > where the index cow lived previously or where her immediate family
members
> > may have lived. The movements include any arrivals or departures from
> those
> > locations. Additional investigations of locations and herds will
continue.
> >
> >
> >
http://www.aphis.usda.gov/newsroom/hot_issues/bse/bse_al_epi-update.shtml
> >
> >
> > TSS
> >
> >
> > ----- Original Message -----
> > From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
> > To:
> > Sent: Saturday, March 25, 2006 12:45 PM
> > Subject: BSE UPDATE ALABAMA March 24, 2006
> >
> >
> > ##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
> > #####################
> >
> >
> > Subject: BSE UPDATE ALABAMA March 24, 2006
> > Date: March 25, 2006 at 10:15 am PST
> >
> > March 24, 2006 - BSE Update
> > MONTGOMERY – Commissioner Ron Sparks and State Veterinarian Dr. Tony
> Frazier
> > with the Alabama Department of Agriculture and Industries (ADAI) and the
> > USDA have provided an update on their ongoing joint investigation of the
> cow
> > that died from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Alabama.
> >
> >
> > March 24, 2006 - BSE Update
> >
> > Since the investigation began, the ADAI and the USDA have followed
> multiple
> > leads in the traceback process. At this time, 13 locations and 32
> movements
> > of cattle have been examined with 27 of those being substantially
> completed.
> > Additional investigations of locations and herds will continue. In
> addition,
> > state and federal officials have confirmed that a black bull calf was
born
> > in 2005 to the index animal (the red cow). The calf was taken by the
owner
> > to a local stockyard in July 2005 where the calf died. The calf was
> disposed
> > of in a local landfill and did not enter the human or animal food chain.
> >
> > Without a premises or animal ID program in place, the traceback process
to
> > find the herd of origin of the index cow is time-consuming and
difficult.
> It
> > includes conducting interviews, reviewing of records and documents, and
> > testing of cattle DNA. State and federal officials have discovered
several
> > herds of interest and they are planning to use DNA testing to determine
> DNA
> > linkage between the index cow and the herds. Through the DNA testing of
> > these herds, investigators will attempt to find a genetic path that
could
> > lead to the herd of origin. Commissioner Sparks stressed that the DNA
> > testing being conducted on the herds is for genetic markers and is not a
> > test for the disease BSE.
> >
> > As part of the thorough investigative process, a large number of cattle
> may
> > be tested in this phase and the number of herds included will continue
to
> > grow as the traceback progresses. Leads will be followed by state and
> > federal officials until they are exhausted. Even when an index animal is
> > traced to it’s birth herd, often cohorts of that animal are no longer in
> > that herd. In addition, even if an animal’s cohort has been exposed to
the
> > same infective material in feed, the other animals will not necessarily
> > contract BSE.
> >
> > BSE is not a contagious disease that spreads animal to animal, or animal
> to
> > human. BSE spreads in cattle through the consumption of feed containing
> > specified risk material (brain and spinal cord) derived from BSE
infected
> > cattle. The United States banned the use of such protein supplements in
> > cattle feed since 1997. Sparks says that beef consumption in this
country
> is
> > safe and there are measures in place to see that it continues to be
safe.
> > For example, downer animals are not allowed to enter commerce for human
> > consumption and there is a ban on feeding ruminant derived protein to
> > cattle.
> >
> >
> >
http://www.agi.state.al.us/press_releases/march-24-2006---bse-update2?pn=2
> >
> >
> >
> >
==========================================================================
> >
> >
> >
> >
> > Epidemiology Update March 23, 2006
> > As of today, 13 locations and 32 movements of cattle have been examined
> with
> > 27 of those being substantially completed. Additional investigations of
> > locations and herds will continue. In addition, state and federal
> officials
> > have confirmed that a black bull calf was born in 2005 to the index
animal
> > (the red cow). The calf was taken by the owner to a local stockyard in
> July
> > 2005 where the calf died. The calf was appropriately disposed of in a
> local
> > landfill and did not enter the human or animal food chain.
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
http://www.aphis.usda.gov/newsroom/hot_issues/bse/bse_al_epi-update.shtml
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> > > The calf was appropriately disposed of in a local
> > > landfill and did not enter the human or animal food chain.
> >
> >
> > meanwhile, back at the ranch with larry, curly and mo heading up the
USDA
> et
> > al,
> > what would you expect, nothing less than shoot, shovel and shut the hell
> up.
> > no mad cow in USA, feed ban working, no civil war in Iraq either.
> >
> >
> > but what has past history shown us, evidently it has shown the USDA et
al
> > nothing ;
> >
> >
> > Disposal of meat and bone meal (MBM) derived from specified risk
material
> > (SRM) and over thirty month scheme carcasses by landfill
> > The Committee was asked to consider a quantitative risk assessment of
the
> > disposal of meat and bone meal derived from specified risk material and
> over
> > thirty month scheme carcasses by landfill, prepared in response to a
> request
> > from the Committee at its June 1999 meeting.
> >
> > The Committee was asked whether, in the light of the results of the risk
> > assessment, it held to its earlier published (June 1999) view that
> landfill
> > was an acceptable outlet for MBM of any origin, although it retained a
> > preference for incineration. The Committee reiterated that it had a
strong
> > preference for incineration as the favoured route for the disposal of
MBM
> > and were uneasy about the use of landfill for the disposal of this
> material.
> > If there were cases where incineration was not practical the Committee
> felt
> > it would be preferable for any material going to landfill to be
> > pressure-cooked first or possibly stored above ground prior to
> incineration.
> >
> >
> >
> > http://www.seac.gov.uk/summaries/summ_0700.htm
> >
> >
> >
> >
> > Disposal of BSE suspect carcases
> > It is the Department's policy to dispose of BSE suspects by incineration
> > wherever feasible. No BSE suspect carcases have been landfilled since
> 1991.
> >
> >
> >
> > http://www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/bse/publichealth/notification.html#disp
> >
> >
> >
> >
> > OPINION ON
> >
> > THE USE OF BURIAL FOR DEALING WITH ANIMAL
> >
> > CARCASSES AND OTHER ANIMAL MATERIALS THAT
> >
> > MIGHT CONTAIN BSE/TSE
> >
> > ADOPTED BY THE
> >
> > SCIENTIFIC STEERING COMMITTEE
> >
> > MEETING OF 16-17 JANUARY 2003
> >
> > The details of the SSC’s evaluation are provided in the attached report.
> The
> > SSC
> >
> > concludes as follows:
> >
> > (1) The term “burial” includes a diversity of disposal conditions.
> Although
> > burial is
> >
> > widely used for disposal of waste the degradation process essential for
> > BSE/TSE
> >
> > infectivity reduction is very difficult to control. The extent to which
> such
> > an
> >
> > infectivity reduction can occur as a consequence of burial is poorly
> > characterised.
> >
> > It would appear to be a slow process in various circumstances.
> >
> > (2) A number of concerns have been identified including potential for
> > groundwater
> >
> > contamination, dispersal/transmission by birds/animals/insects,
accidental
> >
> > uncovering by man.
> >
> > (3) In the absence of any new data the SSC confirms its previous opinion
> > that animal
> >
> > material which could possibly be contaminated with BSE/TSEs, burial
poses
> a
> >
> > risk except under highly controlled conditions (e.g., controlled
> landfill).
> >
> > SNIP...
> >
> > 4. CONCLUSION
> >
> > In the absence of new evidence the opinion of the SSC “Opinion on Fallen
> > Stock”
> >
> > (SSC 25th June 1999) must be endorsed strongly that land burial of all
> > animals and
> >
> > material derived from them for which there is a possibility that they
> could
> >
> > incorporate BSE/TSEs poses a significant risk. Only in exceptional
> > circumstances
> >
> > where there could be a considerable delay in implementing a safe means
of
> > disposal
> >
> > should burial of such materials be considered. Guidelines should be made
> > available
> >
> > to aid on burial site selection.
> >
> > 4 PAGES;
> >
> >
> >
> > http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/sc/ssc/out309_en.pdf
> >
> >
> >
> >
> > During the 2001 outbreak of FMD in the UK, the
> >
> > Department of Health prepared a rapid qualitative
> >
> > assessment of the potential risks to human health
> >
> > associated with various methods of carcass disposal
> >
> > (UK Department of Health, 2001c). The most
> >
> > relevant hazards to human health resulting from
> >
> > burial were identified as bacteria pathogenic to
> >
> > humans, water-borne protozoa, and BSE. The main
> >
> > potential route identified was contaminated water
> >
> > supplies, and the report generally concluded that an
> >
> > engineered licensed landfill would always be
> >
> > preferable to unlined burial. In general terms, the
> >
> > findings of the qualitative assessment relative to
> >
> > biological agents are summarized in Table 13.
> >
> > TABLE 13. Potential health hazards and associated pathways of exposure
> > resulting from landfill or burial of
> >
> > animal carcasses (adapted from UK Department of Health, 2001c).
> >
> > PLEASE SEE TABLE AT;
> >
> >
> >
> >
>
http://www.k-state.edu/projects/fss/research/books/carcassdispfiles/PDF%20Fi
> > les/CH%201%20-%20Burial.pdf
> >
> >
> >
> > PART 2
> >
> > Rendering and fixed-facility incineration were
> >
> > preferred, but the necessary resources were not
> >
> > immediately available and UK officials soon learned
> >
> > that the capacity would only cover a portion of the
> >
> > disposal needs. Disposal in commercial landfills was
> >
> > seen as the next best environmental solution, but
> >
> > legal, commercial, and local community problems
> >
> > limited landfill use. With these limitations in mind,
> >
> > pyre burning was the actual initial method used but
> >
> > was subsequently discontinued following increasing
> >
> > public, scientific, and political concerns. Mass burial
> >
> > and on-farm burial were last on the preferred
> >
> > method list due to the complicating matter of bovine
> >
> > spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and the risk posed
> >
> > to groundwater (Hickman & Hughes, 2002).
> >
> >
> >
>
http://www.k-state.edu/projects/fss/research/books/carcassdispfiles/PDF%20Fi
> >
>
les/Introduction%20to%20Part%202%20-%20Cross-Cutting%20&%20Policy%20Issues.p
> > df
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> > Carcase disposal:
> >
> > A Major Problem of the
> >
> > 2001 FMD Outbreak
> >
> > Gordon Hickman and Neil Hughes, Disposal Cell,
> >
> > FMD Joint Co-ordination Centre, Page Street
> >
> > snip...
> >
> >
> > http://www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/svj/fmd/pages27-40.pdf
> >
> >
> >
> > 3. Prof. A. Robertson gave a brief account of BSE. The US approach
> > was to accord it a _very low profile indeed_. Dr. A Thiermann showed
> > the picture in the ''Independent'' with cattle being incinerated and
> thought
> > this was a fanatical incident to be _avoided_ in the US _at all
costs_...
> >
> > snip...
> >
> >
> > http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11b/tab01.pdf
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> > PAUL BROWN SCRAPIE SOIL TEST
> >
> >
> > http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/sc/seac07/tab03.pdf
> >
> >
> >
> >
> > Some unofficial information from a source on the inside looking out -
> >
> > Confidential!!!!
> >
> > As early as 1992-3 there had been long studies conducted on small
> > pastures containing scrapie infected sheep at the sheep research station
> > associated with the Neuropathogenesis Unit in Edinburgh, Scotland.
> > Whether these are documented...I don't know. But personal recounts both
> > heard and recorded in a daily journal indicate that leaving the pastures
> > free and replacing the topsoil completely at least 2 feet of thickness
> > each year for SEVEN years....and then when very clean (proven scrapie
> > free) sheep were placed on these small pastures.... the new sheep also
> > broke out with scrapie and passed it to offspring. I am not sure that
TSE
> > contaminated ground could ever be free of the agent!!
> > A very frightening revelation!!!
> >
> > ----------
> >
> > more here ;
> >
> > http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/ws/s018.pdf
> >
> >
> >
> >
> > INCINERATION TEMPS
> >
> > Requirements include:
> >
> > a. after burning to the range of 800 to 1000*C to eliminate smell;
> >
> > well heck, this is just typical public relations fear factor control.
> > do you actually think they would spend the extra costs for fuel,
> > for such extreme heat, just to eliminate smell, when they spread
> > manure all over your veg's. i think not. what they really meant were
> > any _TSE agents_.
> >
> > b. Gas scrubbing to eliminate smoke -- though steam may be omitted;
> >
> > c. Stacks to be fitted with grit arreaters;
> >
> > snip...
> >
> > 1.2 Visual Imact
> >
> > It is considered that the requirement for any carcase incinerator
> > disign would be to ensure that the operations relating to the reception,
> > storage and decepitation of diseased carcasses must not be publicly
> > visible and that any part of a carcase could not be removed or
> > interfered with by animals or birds.
> >
> > full text;
> >
> >
> > http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1989/04/03006001.pdf
> >
> >
> >
> >
> > http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/sc/ssc/out311_en.pdf
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> > also, if one thinks that cattle don't become infected with BSE under 30
> > months, well that simplys is not correct.
> >
> > youngest to date is 20 months, with many more in the 20 to 30 month
range
> > not only in the UK but Japan as well. ...
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> > Kind regards,
> >
> > Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
> > Bacliff, Texas USA
> >
> > #################### https://lists.aegee.org/bse-l.html
> > ####################
> >
> > #################### https://lists.aegee.org/bse-l.html
> ####################
> >
>
> #################### https://lists.aegee.org/bse-l.html
####################
>

#################### https://lists.aegee.org/bse-l.html ####################




BSE GBR ASSESSMENTS


http://www.efsa.eu.int/science/tse_assessments/gbr_assessments/catindex_en.html



EFSA Scientific Report on the Assessment of the Geographical BSE-Risk (GBR) of the United States of America (USA)
Last updated: 19 July 2005
Adopted July 2004 (Question N° EFSA-Q-2003-083)

Report
Summary
Summary of the Scientific Report

The European Food Safety Authority and its Scientific Expert Working Group on the Assessment of the Geographical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Risk (GBR) were asked by the European Commission (EC) to provide an up-to-date scientific report on the GBR in the United States of America, i.e. the likelihood of the presence of one or more cattle being infected with BSE, pre-clinically as well as clinically, in USA. This scientific report addresses the GBR of USA as assessed in 2004 based on data covering the period 1980-2003.

The BSE agent was probably imported into USA and could have reached domestic cattle in the middle of the eighties. These cattle imported in the mid eighties could have been rendered in the late eighties and therefore led to an internal challenge in the early nineties. It is possible that imported meat and bone meal (MBM) into the USA reached domestic cattle and leads to an internal challenge in the early nineties.

A processing risk developed in the late 80s/early 90s when cattle imports from BSE risk countries were slaughtered or died and were processed (partly) into feed, together with some imports of MBM. This risk continued to exist, and grew significantly in the mid 90’s when domestic cattle, infected by imported MBM, reached processing. Given the low stability of the system, the risk increased over the years with continued imports of cattle and MBM from BSE risk countries.

EFSA concludes that the current GBR level of USA is III, i.e. it is likely but not confirmed that domestic cattle are (clinically or pre-clinically) infected with the BSE-agent. As long as there are no significant changes in rendering or feeding, the stability remains extremely/very unstable. Thus, the probability of cattle to be (pre-clinically or clinically) infected with the BSE-agent persistently increases.



Publication date: 20 August 2004



http://www.efsa.eu.int/science/tse_assessments/gbr_assessments/573_it.html


http://www.efsa.eu.int/science/tse_assessments/gbr_assessments/573/sr03_biohaz02_usa_report_summary_en1.pdf


http://www.efsa.eu.int/science/tse_assessments/gbr_assessments/573/sr03_biohaz02_usa_report_v2_en1.pdf







From: TSS ()
Subject: [Docket No. 03-025IFA] SRMs and Non-Ambulatory disabled cattle[TSS]
Date: October 6, 2005 at 2:28 pm PST

[Docket No. 03-025IFA] FSIS Prohibition of the Use of Specified Risk Materials for Human Food and Requirement for the Disposition of Non-Ambulatory Disabled Cattle

03-025IFA
03-025IFA-2
Terry S. Singeltary


Page 1 of 17

From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. [flounder9@verizon.net]

Sent: Thursday, September 08, 2005 6:17 PM

To: fsis.regulationscomments@fsis.usda.gov

Subject: [Docket No. 03-025IFA] FSIS Prohibition of the Use of Specified Risk Materials for Human Food and Requirements

for the Disposition of Non-Ambulatory Disabled Cattle

Greetings FSIS,

I would kindly like to submit the following to [Docket No. 03-025IFA] FSIS Prohibition of the Use of Specified Risk Materials for Human Food and

Requirements for the Disposition of Non-Ambulatory Disabled Cattle

THE BSE/TSE SUB CLINICAL Non-Ambulatory Disabled Cattle

Broken bones and such may be the first signs of a sub clinical BSE/TSE Non-Ambulatory Disabled Cattle ;

SUB CLINICAL PRION INFECTION

MRC-43-00

Issued: Monday, 28 August 2000

NEW EVIDENCE OF SUB-CLINICAL PRION INFECTION: IMPORTANT RESEARCH

FINDINGS RELEVANT TO CJD AND BSE


Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

P.O. Box 42

Bacliff, Texas USA 77518

9/13/2005

http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/Comments/03-025IFA/03-025IFA-2.pdf


========================================================

========================================================

OLD TSS SUBMISSIONS;

Docket No, 04-047-l Regulatory Identification No. (RIN) 091O-AF46 NEW BSE SAFEGUARDS (comment submission)

https://web01.aphis.usda.gov/regpublic.nsf/0/eff9eff1f7c5cf2b87256ecf000df08d?OpenDocument

Docket No. 03-080-1 -- USDA ISSUES PROPOSED RULE TO ALLOW LIVE ANIMAL
IMPORTS FROM CANADA


https://web01.aphis.usda.gov/BSEcom.nsf/0/b78ba677e2b0c12185256dd300649f9d?OpenDocument&AutoFramed


Docket No. 2003N-0312 Animal Feed Safety System [TSS SUBMISSION]

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dockets/03n0312/03N-0312_emc-000001.txt

Docket Management Docket: 02N-0273 - Substances Prohibited From Use in

Animal Food or Feed; Animal Proteins Prohibited in Ruminant Feed

Comment Number: EC -10

Accepted - Volume 2


http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/Jan03/012403/8004be07.html

PART 2


http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/Jan03/012403/8004be09.html

PDF]Freas, William TSS SUBMISSION

File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat -

Page 1. J Freas, William From: Sent: To: Subject: Terry S. Singeltary

Sr. [flounder@wt.net] Monday, January 08,200l 3:03 PM freas ...

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/01/slides/3681s2_09.pdf

Asante/Collinge et al, that BSE transmission to the 129-methionine

genotype can lead to an alternate phenotype that is indistinguishable

from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest _sporadic_ CJD;

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/03/slides/3923s1_OPH.htm

Docket Management Docket: 96N-0417 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice
in Manufacturing, Packing, or Holding Dietary Ingredients a
Comment Number: EC -2
Accepted - Volume 7

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/Mar03/031403/96N-0417-EC-2.htm


[PDF] Appendices to PL107-9 Inter-agency Working Group Final Report 1-1
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
Agent, Weapons of Mass Destruction Operations Unit Federal Bureau of
those who provided comments in response to Docket No. ...
Meager 8/18/01 Terry S. Singeltary Sr ...


http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/pubs/pubs/PL107-9_Appen.pdf

Docket No. 2003N-0312 Animal Feed Safety System [TSS SUBMISSION
TO DOCKET 2003N-0312]

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dockets/03n0312/03N-0312_emc-000001.txt

# Docket No: 02-088-1 RE-Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of
2002; [TSS SUBMISSION ON POTENTIAL FOR BSE/TSE & FMD 'SUITCASE BOMBS'] -
TSS 1/27/03 (0)

Docket Management

Docket: 02N-0276 - Bioterrorism Preparedness; Registration of Food Facilities, Section 305
Comment Number: EC-254 [TSS SUBMISSION]

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dockets/02n0276/02N-0276-EC-254.htm


Dockets Entered On October 2, 2003 Table of Contents, Docket #,
Title, 1978N-0301,

OTC External Analgesic Drug Products, ... EMC 7, Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
Vol #: 1, ...

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/oct03/100203/100203.htm


Daily Dockets Entered on 02/05/03

DOCKETS ENTERED on 2/5/03. ... EMC 4 Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Vol#: 2.
... Vol#: 1.

03N-0009 Federal Preemption of State & Local Medical Device Requireme. ...


http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/Feb03/020503/020503.htm


Docket Management

Docket: 02N-0370 - Neurological Devices; Classification of Human Dura Mater

Comment Number: EC -1

Accepted - Volume 1


http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/Jan03/012403/8004be11.html


http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/Jan03/012403/8004bdfe.html


http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/Jan03/012403/8004bdfc.html


Daily Dockets - 04/10/03

... 00D-1662 Use of Xenotransplantation Products in Humans.
EMC 98 Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Vol#: 3. 01F ...
http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/Apr03/041003/041003.htm - 05-20-2003
- Cached


2003D-0186
Guidance for Industry: Use of Material From Deer and Elk In Animal Feed


EMC 1
Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
Vol #:
1

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/Jun03/060903/060903.htm


2003D-0186
Guidance for Industry: Use of Material From Deer and Elk In Animal Feed


EMC 7
Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
Vol #:
1

2003D-0186
Guidance for Industry: Use of Material From Deer and Elk In Animal Feed


EMC 7
Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
Vol #:
1


http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/oct03/100203/100203.htm

01N-0423 Substances Prohibited from use in animal food/Feed Ruminant

APE 5 National Renderers Association, Inc. Vol#: 2

APE 6 Animal Protein Producers Industry Vol#: 2

APE 7 Darling International Inc. Vol#: 2

EMC 1 Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Vol#: 3

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/01/Oct01/101501/101501.htm

Send Post-Publication Peer Review to journal:


Re: RE-Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob

disease in the United States


Email Terry S. Singeltary:


flounder@wt.net

I lost my mother to hvCJD (Heidenhain Variant CJD). I would like to

comment on the CDC's attempts to monitor the occurrence of emerging

forms of CJD. Asante, Collinge et al [1] have reported that BSE

transmission to the 129-methionine genotype can lead to an alternate

phenotype that is indistinguishable from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest

sporadic CJD. However, CJD and all human TSEs are not reportable

nationally. CJD and all human TSEs must be made reportable in every

state and internationally. I hope that the CDC does not continue to

expect us to still believe that the 85%+ of all CJD cases which are

sporadic are all spontaneous, without route/source. We have many TSEs in

the USA in both animal and man. CWD in deer/elk is spreading rapidly and

CWD does transmit to mink, ferret, cattle, and squirrel monkey by

intracerebral inoculation. With the known incubation periods in other

TSEs, oral transmission studies of CWD may take much longer. Every

victim/family of CJD/TSEs should be asked about route and source of this

agent. To prolong this will only spread the agent and needlessly expose

others. In light of the findings of Asante and Collinge et al, there

should be drastic measures to safeguard the medical and surgical arena

from sporadic CJDs and all human TSEs. I only ponder how many sporadic

CJDs in the USA are type 2 PrPSc?


http://www.neurology.org/cgi/eletters/60/2/176#535

LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL


Volume 3, Number 8 01 August 2003


Newsdesk


Tracking spongiform encephalopathies in North America


Xavier Bosch

My name is Terry S Singeltary Sr, and I live in Bacliff, Texas. I lost

my mom to hvCJD (Heidenhain variant CJD) and have been searching for

answers ever since. What I have found is that we have not been told the

truth. CWD in deer and elk is a small portion of a much bigger problem.


49-year-old Singeltary is one of a number of people who have remained

largely unsatisfied after being told that a close relative died from a

rapidly progressive dementia compatible with spontaneous

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). So he decided to gather hundreds of

documents on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and

realised that if Britons could get variant CJD from bovine spongiform

encephalopathy (BSE), Americans might get a similar disorder from

chronic wasting disease (CWD)the relative of mad cow disease seen among

deer and elk in the USA. Although his feverish search did not lead him

to the smoking gun linking CWD to a similar disease in North American

people, it did uncover a largely disappointing situation.


Singeltary was greatly demoralised at the few attempts to monitor the

occurrence of CJD and CWD in the USA. Only a few states have made CJD

reportable. Human and animal TSEs should be reportable nationwide and

internationally, he complained in a letter to the Journal of the

American Medical Association (JAMA 2003; 285: 733). I hope that the CDC

does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85% plus of all

CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route or source.


Until recently, CWD was thought to be confined to the wild in a small

region in Colorado. But since early 2002, it has been reported in other

areas, including Wisconsin, South Dakota, and the Canadian province of

Saskatchewan. Indeed, the occurrence of CWD in states that were not

endemic previously increased concern about a widespread outbreak and

possible transmission to people and cattle.


To date, experimental studies have proven that the CWD agent can be

transmitted to cattle by intracerebral inoculation and that it can cross

the mucous membranes of the digestive tract to initiate infection in

lymphoid tissue before invasion of the central nervous system. Yet the

plausibility of CWD spreading to people has remained elusive.


Part of the problem seems to stem from the US surveillance system. CJD

is only reported in those areas known to be endemic foci of CWD.

Moreover, US authorities have been criticised for not having performed

enough prionic tests in farm deer and elk.


Although in November last year the US Food and Drug Administration

issued a directive to state public-health and agriculture officials

prohibiting material from CWD-positive animals from being used as an

ingredient in feed for any animal species, epidemiological control and

research in the USA has been quite different from the situation in the

UK and Europe regarding BSE.


Getting data on TSEs in the USA from the government is like pulling

teeth, Singeltary argues. You get it when they want you to have it,

and only what they want you to have.


Norman Foster, director of the Cognitive Disorders Clinic at the

University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI, USA), says that current

surveillance of prion disease in people in the USA is inadequate to

detect whether CWD is occurring in human beings; adding that, the

cases that we know about are reassuring, because they do not suggest the

appearance of a new variant of CJD in the USA or atypical features in

patients that might be exposed to CWD. However, until we establish a

system that identifies and analyses a high proportion of suspected prion

disease cases we will not know for sure. The USA should develop a

system modelled on that established in the UK, he points out.

Ali Samii, a neurologist at Seattle VA Medical Center who recently

reported the cases of three hunterstwo of whom were friendswho died

from pathologically confirmed CJD, says that at present there are

insufficient data to claim transmission of CWD into humans; adding that

[only] by asking [the questions of venison consumption and deer/elk

hunting] in every case can we collect suspect cases and look into the

plausibility of transmission further. Samii argues that by making both

doctors and hunters more aware of the possibility of prions spreading

through eating venison, doctors treating hunters with dementia can

consider a possible prion disease, and doctors treating CJD patients

will know to ask whether they ate venison.


CDC spokesman Ermias Belay says that the CDC will not be investigating

the [Samii] cases because there is no evidence that the men ate

CWD-infected meat. He notes that although the likelihood of CWD

jumping the species barrier to infect humans cannot be ruled out 100%

and that [we] cannot be 100% sure that CWD does not exist in humans&

the data seeking evidence of CWD transmission to humans have been very

limited.


http://infection.thelancet.com/journal/journal.isa


he complained in a letter to the Journal of the American Medical

Association (JAMA 2003; 285: 733). I hope that the CDC does not

continue to expect us to still believe that the 85% plus of all CJD

cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route or source.<<<

actually, that quote was from a more recent article in the Journal of

Neurology (see below), not the JAMA article...

Full Text

Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Singeltary, Sr et al. JAMA.2001; 285: 733-734.

http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/285/6/733?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=dignosing+and+reporting+creutzfeldt+jakob+disease&searchid=1048865596978_1528&stored_search=&FIRSTINDEX=0&journalcode=jama

BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL

SOMETHING TO CHEW ON

BMJ

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/eletters/319/7220/1312/b#EL2

BMJ

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/eletters/320/7226/8/b#EL1

THE PATHOLOGICAL PROTEIN

BY Philip Yam

Yam Philip Yam News Editor Scientific American www.sciam.com
http://www.thepathologicalprotein.com/

IN light of Asante/Collinge et al findings that BSE transmission to the
129-methionine genotype can lead to an alternate phenotype that is
indistinguishable from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest _sporadic_ CJD;

-------- Original Message -------- Subject: re-BSE prions propagate as

either variant CJD-like or sporadic CJD Date: Thu, 28 Nov 2002 10:23:43

-0000 From: "Asante, Emmanuel A" To:
"'flounder@wt.net'"

Dear Terry,

I have been asked by Professor Collinge to respond to your request. I am

a Senior Scientist in the MRC Prion Unit and the lead author on the

paper. I have attached a pdf copy of the paper for your attention. Thank

you for your interest in the paper.

In respect of your first question, the simple answer is, yes. As you

will find in the paper, we have managed to associate the alternate

phenotype to type 2 PrPSc, the commonest sporadic CJD.

It is too early to be able to claim any further sub-classification in

respect of Heidenhain variant CJD or Vicky Rimmer's version. It will

take further studies, which are on-going, to establish if there are

sub-types to our initial finding which we are now reporting. The main

point of the paper is that, as well as leading to the expected new

variant CJD phenotype, BSE transmission to the 129-methionine genotype

can lead to an alternate phenotype which is indistinguishable from type

2 PrPSc.

I hope reading the paper will enlighten you more on the subject. If I

can be of any further assistance please to not hesitate to ask. Best wishes.

Emmanuel Asante

<> ____________________________________

Dr. Emmanuel A Asante MRC Prion Unit & Neurogenetics Dept. Imperial

College School of Medicine (St. Mary's) Norfolk Place, LONDON W2 1PG

Tel: +44 (0)20 7594 3794 Fax: +44 (0)20 7706 3272 email:

e.asante@ic.ac.uk (until 9/12/02)

New e-mail: e.asante@prion.ucl.ac.uk (active from now)

____________________________________

snip...

full text ;

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/03/slides/3923s1_OPH.htm


AND the new findings of BASE in cattle in Italy of Identification of a
second bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy: Molecular
similarities with sporadic

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease


http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/0305777101v1


Adaptation of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent to primates
and comparison with Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease: Implications for
human health

THE findings from Corinne Ida Lasmézas*, [dagger] , Jean-Guy Fournier*,
Virginie Nouvel*,

Hermann Boe*, Domíníque Marcé*, François Lamoury*, Nicolas Kopp [Dagger

] , Jean-Jacques Hauw§, James Ironside¶, Moira Bruce [||] , Dominique

Dormont*, and Jean-Philippe Deslys* et al, that The agent responsible
for French iatrogenic growth hormone-linked CJD taken as a control is
very different from vCJD but is similar to that found in one case of
sporadic CJD and one sheep scrapie isolate;

http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/041490898v1

Characterization of two distinct prion strains
derived from bovine spongiform encephalopathy
transmissions to inbred mice

http://vir.sgmjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/85/8/2471


ALL animals for human/animal consumption must be tested for TSE.

ALL human TSEs must be made reportable Nationally and Internationally, OF ALL AGES...TSS


Health BusinessQuestions linger in U.S. CJD casesBy STEVE MITCHELLSenior Medical Correspondent WASHINGTON, Oct. 21 (UPI) -- French researchers have ruled out the human form of mad cow disease in a deceased California man, even though they did not conduct the critical test widely regarded as the only way to determine precisely the nature of his disease, United Press International has learned. The case of Patrick Hicks, who died last November from his condition, has remained murky from the beginning. Dr. Ron Bailey, of Riverside, Calif., the man's neurologist, had suspected the 49-year-old Hicks of having contracted variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease -- a fatal, brain-wasting illness humans can contract from eating beef products contaminated with the mad cow pathogen -- and both he and the family wanted an autopsy conducted to determine if Hicks had succumbed to the disorder. Bailey became concerned that Hicks might have contracted vCJD because he initially had exhibited psychiatric symptoms, his illness appears to have lasted for more than one year and he showed normal brain-wave patterns via EEGs until the late stages -- all consistent with the disease. In addition, Hicks's relatively young age raised concerns, because nearly all of the more than 150 cases of vCJD detected worldwide have occurred in people under age 55. The first hint of oddness began when, according to both Hicks's brother and mother, a team of six doctors, who they suspect were with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, visited Patrick last October while he was still alive and under care at Loma Linda University Medical Center in Loma Linda, Calif. They said they were asked to leave when the doctors arrived to examine Patrick. CDC officials would not confirm to UPI whether they had investigated the case, but the agency's policy does require examining all suspected cases of vCJD in anyone under 55. The family also said Loma Linda refused to released Hicks's medical records to them. The oddities continued after Hicks's death. Bailey found it almost impossible to get an autopsy conducted on Hicks, the only way to determine conclusively whether he had variant or sporadic CJD -- a version of the disease not related to mad cow. One county coroner's office referred him to another and both refused to conduct the procedure, he said. Then, the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center in Cleveland, Ohio -- which was established by the CDC to investigate potential vCJD cases in the United States -- dispatched a mobile autopsy company called 1-800-Autopsy, but the company failed to follow the center's protocol and did not collect frozen sections of brain, which are required for tests to determine whether the disease is vCJD or sCJD. Instead, the autopsy company fixed the entire brain in formalin. The NPDPSC, however, considers the collection of frozen brain tissue essential to distinguishing vCJD from other forms of CJD. "Only frozen brain tissue examination definitely confirms or excludes the diagnosis of prion disease and provides the information to identify the type of prion disease," the center's Web site says. Prions are abnormal proteins thought to play a role in causing vCJD and sCJD. The problem raised enough concern that both Bailey and Hicks's family sought a second opinion. Experts had told them that animal-injection studies could be done with formalin-fixed tissue, so the family arranged to have a sample of Patrick's brain sent to Dr. Jean Jacques Hauw at the Laboratoire De Neuropathologie at the Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere in Paris, who they thought had agreed to do the studies. The NPDPSC, however, delayed sending the sample to France for two months after the family's request last March. During the delay, Pierluigi Gambetti, the NPDPSC's director, sent a letter to Hicks's wife. "We can definitely rule out the diagnosis of variant CJD," the letter stated. Gambetti's strong conclusion sounded strange to Bailey, because the NPDPSC had not conducted further tests since January, when they had said vCJD was unlikely but that they were unable to rule it out entirely. After examining the brain tissue, Hauw's team told the family the disease was consistent with sCJD, but to date they have not explained why they did not conduct the animal-injection studies -- the family's reason for sending samples of his brain to France. Asked the reasons for not following the family's wishes and conducting the animal studies, Hauw told UPI, "I cannot answer your question," citing French regulations that prohibited him from providing information about a specific patient. He did say, however, that "animal injection is not needed for the routine diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and its various variants, at least in France and in the United Kingdom." That may be true, but it remains unclear why he accepted the case in the first place, knowing that is what the family wanted. Moreover, this was not a "routine diagnosis." If Hicks suffered from vCJD, he potentially would have been the first person in the United States to have acquired the disease domestically, a development with significant domestic and international ramifications. In addition, other experts, such as Dr. Laura Manuelidis, section chief of surgery in the neuropathology department at Yale University, have said the only way to know conclusively whether the disease is due to sCJD or vCJD is through animal-injection studies. "From what I gather, the result was merely rubber stamped," Bailey told UPI. "I guess we will never really know for sure." The handling of the case is noteworthy, because the NPDPSC currently is investigating nine potential sCJD cases in Idaho. Experts suspect some of those cases could be vCJD. Bailey and some patient advocates said they are now skeptical of the NPDPSC's behavior. "How could my experience with the Hicks case ... and the interaction with NPDPSC not lessen my confidence?" Bailey asked. "I anticipate that all of the Idaho cluster of CJD patients will turn out to have sCJD. I cannot for a minute see their results indicating anything but this. After all, if any patient were to have vCJD, it would have been Patrick Hicks. The results of NPDPSC are not definitive in excluding Hicks as not having vCJD. There certainly will always be that question in my mind." Terry Singletary, a patient advocate whose mother died of a form of the disease called Heidenhain variant, told UPI he likewise had lost confidence in the NPDPSC. "I do not trust them," Singletary said. "It's all going to be sporadic. This is the way they want it. They do not want to find out all the routes and sources of this agent." Both vCJD and mad cow disease are politically sensitive issues because they can impact international trade. Dozens of nations closed their borders to American beef after a lone U.S. cow tested positive for the disease in 2003, resulting in more than $4.7 billion in losses for the industry, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture delayed doing confirmatory tests for seven months on what turned out to be a second case of mad cow. The NPDPSC did not respond to UPI's phone call requesting comment about the Idaho cases. The CDC referred UPI to Idaho officials. Of the nine Idaho cases, three people have tested positive for a CJD-like illness, but officials are conducting further tests to determine whether the disease is sCJD. Two others tested negative and four were buried without autopsies. The cases could just be a statistical fluke, but the state averages about 1.2 sCJD cases per year and has never had more than three in a single year. The disease is rare and generally is thought to occur at the rate of one case per million people. Several CJD clusters in other states have far exceeded that rate, however. These included: --southern New Jersey (2000-2003), --Lehigh, Pa. (1986-90), --Allentown, Pa. (1989-92), --Tampa, Fla. (1996-97), --Oregon (2001-02), and --Nassau County, N.Y. (1999-2000). Some of the clusters involved as many as 18 deaths, and ranged from a rate of four to eight cases per million people. A group of J.P. Morgan analysts issued an advisory last year on the impact the clusters could have on the beef industry, and said that some of the cases could be due to vCJD. "The existence of clusters raises the question of 'contamination' or 'infection,' and also raises the hypothesis that rather than cases of sCJD, these might have been cases of vCJD," the advisory said. "Given that sCJD occurs randomly in one out of 1 million cases, it is a statistical rarity to find an sCJD cluster -- let alone six." If that assessment is accurate, another cluster in Idaho would be even more unlikely. Another possibility is some of the Idaho cases could be due to chronic wasting disease, which is similar to mad cow disease and currently is epidemic among deer and elk in several states, including Idaho's neighbors Wyoming and Utah. No human cases of CWD have ever been confirmed, but the disease has been shown to infect human cells in a lab dish. Also, a team of researchers led by Jason Bartz of Creighton University in Omaha, Neb., report in the November issue of the Journal of Virology they had experimentally transmitted CWD to squirrel monkeys --the first reported transmission of CWD to primates. If CWD is capable of infecting humans, it is unknown whether the resulting disease would resemble sCJD, vCJD or a novel disorder. If the disease looks like sCJD, cases could be going undetected or misdiagnosed. -- E-mail: healthbiz@upi.com © Copyright 2005 United Press International, Inc. All Rights Reserved http://www.upi.com/HealthBusiness/view.php?StoryID=20051019-090103-6576 Questions linger in US CJD casesScience Daily (press release) - 12 hours ago... 21 (UPI) -- French researchers have ruled out the human form of mad cow disease in a deceased California man, even though they did not conduct the critical ... http://www.sciencedaily.com/upi/index.php?feed=Science&article=UPI-1-20051021-21481300-bc-us-cjdcases.xml Questions linger in US CJD casesMiddle East North Africa Financial Network, Middle East - 9 hours ago21 (UPI) -- French researchers have ruled out the human form of mad cow disease in a deceased California man, even though they did not conduct the critical ... http://www.menafn.com/qn_news_story.asp?StoryId=Cq1HNWeidDxmTy2PKy2fZzxm NOT TO FORGET THIS CLUSTER OF CJD IN TEXAS IN 1997 Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in Northeast Texas, J.A. Rawlings,*1 K.A.Hendricks1, O.M. Nuno1, D.A. Brown1, D.A. Evans2, Texas Department ofHealth, 1Austin and 2Tyler, Texas Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease (CJD), a transmissible spongiformencephalopathy, is caused by prions composed of proteinaceous materialdevoid of nucleic acid. CJD occurs sporadically (generally 1case/1,000,000 population per year) in older patients (average age of65) and is characterized by rapidly progressive dementia, accompanied bysevere muscle spasms and incoordination. Death usually occurs within 3to 12 months (average 7 months). CJD activity in Texas, which has apopulation of nearly 19 million, appeared to be typical. The statewidedeath rate for 1995 and 1996 was just under 1/1,000,000. In April of1997, the Texas Department of Health became aware of an increased numberof possible CJD cases in a 23-county area of NE Texas with a populationof just over one million. After review of medical and pathology records,four patients were identified with definite classic CJD and three wereidentified with probable CJD. Dates of death for the eight patients werefrom April, 1996 through mid-July 1997. The patients were from 46through 65 years of age; four were male and three were female. Acase-control study to identify risks for CJD in NE Texas has been initiated. http://www.jifsan.umd.edu/tse/Rawlings.htm MY MOTHER DIED 12/14/97 OF THE HEIDENHAIN VARIANT OF CJD IN TEXAS... TSS I DON'T EXPECT EASTTEXASREVIEW TO PRINT THIS, BUT YOU HAVE THE OTHER SIDE OF THE STORY NOW, i only hope you use it. ...... thank you, I am sincerely, Terry S. Singeltary SR.P.O. Box 42Bacliff, Texas USA 77518





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